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The 1954 French flap:

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October 3, 1954, Bressuire, Deux-Sèvres:

Reference number for this case: 3-oct-54-Bressuire. Thank you for including this reference number in any correspondence with me regarding this case.

Summary:

The French press on October 4 and 5, 1954, has widely reported in summary form a case near Bressuire in the Deux-Sèvres department, telling that an employee of the slaughter center, Mr. "Angelo Girardeau", 55, residing at Breuil-Chaussée, had declared to have seen "Sunday morning" therefore the 3 octobrer 1954, while going to his work, a circular craft near which was "a being which appeared to him as being dressed like a scuba diver". That being went to Mr. Girardeau who, frightened, fled, and soon after, "the circular craft took off again at high speed."

The affair first appeared in the ufology literature through the British writer Harold Wilkins, who tells in his 1954 book on flying saucers, that in Bressuire, France, in 1954, "Angelo Dinardeau" [sic] saw at dawn "a saucer in a field, all haloed with light", and a being in a sort of diving suit that "fled into the saucer and took off in a flash." Wilkins gave no source, but I found that the English newspaper London Evening News for 4 October 1954, mentioned this case.

Then the unreliable American ufologist Gray Barker told that "Angelo Dinardeau" [sic], 55, said that on his way to work near Bressuire, he saw "a luminous craft parked on "earth," and "something dressed in a kind of diving suit was moving around", but "fled into the machine and took off when he apparently saw it." Another American ufologist, Ted Bloecher, would make a brief mention of the case as one of the "dozens" of UFO landings in France in 1954.

In France, the first to talk about the case was Jimmy Guieu in his 1954 book "Blackout sur les Soucoupes Volantes". According to him, at 5:45 a.m. in Bressuire in the Deux-Sèvres, Angelo Girardo, riding a "moped" on the way to work, saw a luminous craft "like a standing barrel in the grass", and a "small man" standing 2 to 3 meters near it. The small man wore a kind of dark jumpsuit but was bareheaded, he waved to the witness, but the latter was not reassured at all, and fled."

The next version was that of Aimé Michel in his 1958 book "Mystérieux Objets Célestes": on October 3, 1954 at dawn, Angelo Girardo, 55, a resident of Breuil-Chaussée in the Deux-Sèvres, employed at the Bressuire slaughterhouses, was riding a "bicycle" on the national road 148B towards Bressuire to get to work. 4 kilometers before Bressuire, when he arrived near the wheat silo of the Bressuire agricultural cooperative, he found himself "facing a circular craft about three meters in diameter" posed on the ground.

He stopped, stunned, and saw next to the craft "a small being dressed in a kind of diving suit", who seemed to begin to move towards Mr. Girardo, who was terrified and fled, "but without leaving the being from sight." The being then returned to his craft, entered inside, and the craft "flew away at a vertiginous speed."

Aimé Michel had thought that cases were "aligned"in a manner that was inexplice by chance alone, and held this affair as one of the spots of one of those alignments; he therefore decided that the case was necessarily valid.

In his 1963 book "Les Apparitions de Martiens", Michel Carrouges reported that on October 3, 1954 at 5:45 a.m., Mr. Girardo was riding a bicycle on a road at the entrance of Bressuire, going to work, and suddenly found himself "face to face" with a sort of "standing barrel in the grass" at the edge of the road. There was a little being near the craft, which made him a sign.

Michel Carrouges points out that according to the version of Charles Garreau, the being had the head bare, but that according to all other versions - those of the press and that of Aimé Michel - he wore a diving suit.

Jacques Vallé then popularized the case widely via his catalog of "landings", from 1966 on. He used a Press summary, giving his sources only in the 1974 version of his catalog.

His resume would be copied, as usual, by many others, like Peter Rogerson who listed Vallée's sources as if he had read them himself, and did not include Vallée as his sources.

The version by Charles Garreau and Raymond Lavier, journalists and ufologists, sourced as coming from "newspaper clippings and personal files", resembles that of Aimé Michel, but they added that the witness had dismounted his bike and when the being made a move to him, he "walked backwards," frightened, "but without leaving the diver's eye." The being then returned to the craft, went inside, and "a few seconds later" the "disc" rose at a "dizzying speed."

But in 1978, in his book "Ils ont rencontré des extraterrestres" ("They met extraterrestrials"), ufologist René Pacaut - little suspect of debunkerism - revealed what this was all about. He explained that during his career as a field ufologist, he was able to verify the credibility of old cases, like that of Angelo Girardo on October 3, 1954.

René Pacaut recalls that Angelo Girardo was eager to tell this story to his fellow workers, and that the story quickly went around the city and then it came to the ears of the "newspapers newsrooms all over France: the landing of a saucer on a street in the city, was a rare event."

17 years later, René Pacaut searched the entire city of Bressuire to find Angelo Girardo. After a day of searching, he finally found his widow, who told him with a sorry smile:

"Do not waste your time. Now that my poor Angelo is dead, I can tell you that he had invented this story from scratch: well, he loved to fool his friends!"

A year later, it was the "skeptical" ufologists Gérard Barthel and Jacques Brucker who in their book "La Grande Peur Martienne" ("The Great Martian Scare"), indicated that the case was "a mystification, according to the statement of a son of Mr. Girardo."

But even authors who had read Pacaut or Barthel and Brucker continued to publish the case without explanation. Michel Figuet did this in 1979, before adopting, in the 1980s, the above explanation.

In January 1986, Frédéric Dumerchat, in the Swiss ufology magazine OVNI Présence #36, took up the whole saga. He noted that so far ufologists read only the national press, and ignored the primary press sources, La Nouvelle République du Centre Ouest for 4 October 1954, pages 2 and 3 of the Deux-Sèvres issue.

In a first article, common to all the departmental publications of the newspaper, it was said that Angelo Girardo, 55, from Breuil-Chaussée, had observed at 5:45 in the morning, while he was going to work on moped, 700 meters from Bressuire, near a wheat silo, a luminous craft resembling a barrel. Close to it, 2 or 3 meters away, stood a small man, bareheaded, dressed in a sort of wetsuit, who made several gestures with his hand. Not very reassured, Girardo continued, and when he looked back, everything was gone. So there was never any observation of a departure of the craft.

Dumerchat then explains that in the second article of La Nouvelle République du Centre-Ouest, published only in the edition for the Deux-Sèvres department, the vagueness of the answers makes one guess the embarrassment of the "witness" and reveals a possible mystification. It was taught, under the title "A worker saw a man like a scuba diver in a round apparatus", that the story had spread to the journalist of Bressuire who then phoned A. Girardo: "Here is summarized the statement that Mr. Girardeau (sic) made to his entourage when he arrived at the slaughterhouses and that he confirmed to us on the phone." The journalist reportedly went to the witness' home, described Girardo as "a serious man" about whom he collected good information. But "the worker speaks, alas!, the French language with much difficulty that does not facilitate anything...". As his name indicates, A. Girardo was indeed of Italian origin. His answers are very vague: "It was notably impossible to evaluate the luminosity of the machine, but as for the luminous form seen, it was perhaps 1 m 50 high and was bulging like a standing barrel". As for the "diver", our interlocutor indicated that what made him use this qualifier was clothing: a sort of big, very dark jumpsuit. But the man was bareheaded and small, without being possible to specify anything else".

Dumerchat explains that it was not until 17 years later that someone, René Pacaut, traveled to find the witness, and learned that it was a hoax. He also adds Barthel and Brucker's find, and then indicates that he himself has entered into communication with the witness' son, Jean-Claude Girardo, teacher in the Deux-Sèvres. During several conversations and a written communication of March 30, 1983, Jean-Claude Girardo told Frederic Dumerchat that his father, who died in 1961, had elaborated, probably not alone, this hoax in order to "fool" one or several workmates at the Bressuire slaughterhouse where he was employed at the time, perhaps on the suggestion of a team leader. His father had not dared to confess the deception when, his "adventure" having been rumored, the local correspondent of La Nouvelle République du Centre-Ouest had come to see him.

Dumerchat states that Jean-Claude Girardo was 12 at the time and that he had no precise recollection of the affair; which he restored mainly from the story of his mother. There was not much talk about the case in the family, probably because of the magnitude it had taken at the time.

Dumerchat was confirmed that the witness's son had been contacted by telephone by G. Barthel and J. Brucker, and that René Pacaut had met his mother.

Since the first version of my file in August 2007, the explanation, a simple joke that grew out of proportion by its undenied publication at the time in the press, with the elements of Pacaut, Barthel and Brucker, is easily readable on the Web. Yet many ufologists, who sometimes quote me, and know my Website anyway, continue 12 years later (I write this in 2019) to publish the case as if it were a genuine encounter of a spacecraft and an alien by Angelo Girardo...

Reports:

[Ref. lae1:] "L'ALSACE" NEWSPAPER:

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"The flying saucers exist"

reaffirms professor Oberth, president of the "German astronautics society"

Hamburg, Oct. 4. -- "The flying saucers exist and represent at least ten percent of the craft observed in the sky", affirmed yesterday evening professor Hermann Oberth, German specialist in the rockets and honorary president of the "German astronautics society", during a conference pronounced in Hamburg.

Professor Oberth added that it was possible, in his opinion, that these machines contain crews of creatures similar to humans, and proposed, to name these unknown beings, the term of "Uranides". The "Uranides", continued the German scientist, probably are several thousands of years ahead on our time.

To explain why no "flying saucer" still crashed on the ground, professor Oberth suggests that perhaps the pilots have a perfect control of their machines, and that, for a reason which a human intelligence cannot imagine, they might not wish any contact with the terrestrial creatures.

Considering another possibility, professor Oberth pointed out that the saucers observed could be regarded as an improvement of the V-7, German rockets of the end of the war, from which several prototypes would have fallen, according to the scientist, into the hands of the Russians in 1945.

A mountain pilot sees a machine above the Mont-Blanc

Chamonix, Oct. 4. -- From all the areas of France the news on the appearances of flying saucers continue to arrive and certain testimonies totally exclude the current assumptions of error or mystification.

Thus very numerous people, among whom were the officers of the School of high mountain, the gendarmes of Chamonix, and pilot Guiron, known specialist of flight in high mountain, who flew over the area at that time, stated to have seen during more than one hour a shining machine move between Mount Lachat and the Mont-Blanc.

Pilot Guiron indicated that, flying at approximately 2.000 meters above Faverges, he saw a machine which, he said, did not have any resemblance to a normal plane. Moreover, the direction followed at high speed by this apparatus excluded the assumption of a weather balloon.

*

Saint-Brieuc, Oct. 4. -- Several person claimed to have seen, at 300 or 400 meters of them, towards 08:45 p.m., a "flying cigar", at an altitude of 50 meters approximately. The machine, they stated, could be 15 meters in length and lit by intermittencies of pink gleams. It moved without noise.

*

Lille, Oct. 4. -- Mr. Anicet Corneille, farm labourer, states to have seen yesterday evening In Comines, a machine having the shape of a cigar, from 8 to 10 meters in length which moved at a forty meters height and released a sharp violet gleam.

These statements were confirmed by a motorist rom Tourcoing passing in Comines.

*

Nevers, Oct. 4. -- An employee of the slaughter house, Mr. Angelo Girardeau, 55 years old, resident of Breuil-Chaussée (Deux-Sèvres) stated to have seen Sunday morning while going to his work, a circular machine close to which was a being that appeared to him as covered a kind of diving-suit. That being moved towards Mr. Girardeau who, frightened, fled. A little later the circular machine set out again at high speed.

[Ref. ler1:] NEWSPAPER "L'EST REPUBLICAIN:"

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DURING THE LAST WEEK-END

The flying saucers disturbed the Sunday rest of a certain number of Frenchmen

Chamonix. -- The chronicle of the flying saucers and other "cigars" continues to be abundantly provided. During the last weekend, the witnesses who have, indeed, seen mysterious machines are countless.

It is apparently Chamonix which should be given the priority, since, at the same moment, officers of the high mountain school, gendarmes, and pilot Guiron who flew over the area saw during more than one hour a white shining craft move between the mount Lachat and Mount Blanc.

Pilot Guiron said that, flying at approximately 2.000 meters above Faverges, he saw a craft which, he said, did not have any resemblance to a normal plane. Moreover, the direction followed at high speed by this apparatus excluded a sounding-balloon.

In Corbigny (the Nièvre), several inhabitants saw a luminous disc of orange color which moved in the sky and disappeared vertically after having changed altitude several times.

In Breuil-Chaussée, in the Deux-Sèvres, Mr. Girardeau, 55 years old, went to his work when, in a turn of the road, he noticed a circular machine "close to which was a being which seemed to him dressed in a kind of diving-suit". The "being" moved towards him and Mr. Girardeau fled, frightened. A little later the circular machine went away at high speed!

"You would have said a haystack"

It is also a curious machine around whose two odd individuals wandered that two young people people of Vron (Somme) stated to have seen. "We approached, they entrusted to the gendarmes. A haystack you would have said. Suddenly, the machine took off".

In the Indre, as well in Levroux as in Vatan, about fifteen people lengthily followed the moves of a luminous ball of yellowish color which went up and down in the sky and could have been three meters in diameter.

[Ref. ads1] "L'ARDENNAIS" NEWSPAPER:

A STRANGE CRAFT MOVES ABOVE MONT-BLANC FOR MORE THAN ONE HOUR

CHAMONIX. -- A very large number of people, among whom were officers from the High Mountain School, gendarmes from Chamonix and pilot Guiron, a specialist in high mountain flying who flew over the area at that time, said to have seen for more than one hour a craft move between Mount Lachat and Mont Blanc.

Pilot Guiron reported that flying about 2,000 meters above Faverges, he saw a craft which, he said, bore no resemblance to a normal aircraft. In addition the direction followed at high speed by this craft excluded the hypothesis of a sounding balloon.

A Saucers Invasion

Moreover, one continues - jokes, hallucinations or trustworthy testimonies - to report everywhere the manifestation in the sky of saucers or other cigars.

VIC-SUR-CERE. -- Several people have said that they have seen a cigar-shaped craft heading south, with a slight smoke plume.

NEVERS. -- A representative of an insurance company in Clamecy, as well as several residents of Corbigny, said they saw an orange luminous disc moving in the sky and which, after having several times changed altitude, disappeared vertically.

BRESSUIRE. -- Slaughter center employee, Mr. Angelo Girardeau, 55-year-old, residing in Breuil-Chaussée (Deux Sèvres), said he had seen Sunday morning, on his way to work, a circular machine near which was a being who appeared to him dressed in a kind of scuba. That character went to Mr. Girardeau who, frightened, fled. Shortly after the circular craft departed at very high speed.

ABBEVILLE. -- Two young men from Vron (Somme) said they saw on the national road, between Crécy and Ligescourt, a curious craft around which bizarre individuals roamed. They approached the craft, who, they say, looked like a haystack, but it took off. The two young people told their adventure to the gendarmes.

CHATEAUROUX. -- Mrs widow Janiki, residing at the Bourg du Ceris1er, commune of Levroux (Indre), told the police that she had seen in the sky a luminous craft of a diameter of about 8 meters and which was at the level of buildings. Mrs. widow Lacotte, who lives about 800 meters from Mrs. Janiki, said she witnessed the same phenomenon.

(See more on page 5)

A strange craft is moving...

(Continued from the first page.)

CHATEAUROUX. -- Mrs. Baron, living in Vatan (Indre), said she saw a luminous ball in the sky Sunday evening. She alerted her husband and about fifteen people from her neighborhood who, all, saw moving, at a very high altitude, the greenish yellow machine that went up and down in the sky.

An official report

Whereas these different appearances can make the skeptics smile, the information coming from Africa appears more serious. Because, probably not wanting to disdain any continent, flying saucers were seen in Côte d'Ivoire. The news came from an official report to the governor of Côte d'Ivoire by Mr. Vernhet, chief administrator of the Danane subdivision, a town 500 kilometers northwest of Abijan. The facts date back to September 19, but have only been made official today through specific inquiries and investigations.

In addition to the population, the head of the gendarmerie station, the chief medical officer of the medical center, the Reverend Father Vyard, of the Lyon missions, head of the subdivision, and his wife, gathered in the courtyard of the residence, and saw on September 19, from 8:30 p.m. zo 9:05 p.m., a craft exactly corresponding to those observed in France, but which did not land.

It was a luminous dot, surrounded by a halo that first grew rapidly, moving closer to or away from the horizon. The witnesses saw the craft light a powerful headlight, sometimes directed upwards, sometimes downwards. The craft, of ovoid shape, was surmounted by a dome and luminous beams seemed to be detached on each side.

When it disappeared, after having moved for half an hour, the witnesses saw very clearly two luminous halos of oval shape, to be formed on the presumed location of the craft. The latter moved without any noise. Administrator Vernhet has attached to his report a detailed sketch of the different phases observed, as well as of the shape of the craft.

On the same day, in Soubre, 250 kilometers north-west of Abidjan, and in the same direction, similar phenomena were observed. The head of the subdivision of Soubre confirmed the existence of the phenomenon he attended.

"The Uranids"

Moreover, the scientists who until now had remained silent on the flying saucers affairs, will they leave their prudent reserve?

"Flying saucers exist and account for at least ten percent of the craft observed in the sky," said Professor Oberth, German rocket scientist and honorary president of the "German Astronautical Society", during a conference in Hamburg.

Professor Oberth added that it is possible, in his opinion, that these craft contain crews of creatures similar to humans, and proposed, to designate these unknown beings, the term "URANIDS". The Uranids, the German scholar continued, are probably thousands of years ahead of our time.

To explain why no "flying saucer" crashed on Earth so far, Professor Oberth suggests that pilots may have perfect control of their craft and that, for some reason that human intelligence cannot imagine, they may not desire any contact with terrestrial creatures.

Looking at another possibility, Professor Oberth recalled that the saucers observed could be considered as a perfecting of the V7, German rockets of the end of World War II, of which several prototypes would have fallen, according to the scientist, in Russian hands in 1945.

[Ref. lhh1:] LARRY HATCH - "*U* COMPUTER DATABASE":

3930: 1954/10/03 05:50 10 0:27:00 W 46:50:00 N 3333 WEU FRN DSV 9:8

4KM ESE/BRESSUIRE,FR:3M SCR/GND:OID/DIVING SUIT BOARDS+FLIES:/LDLN#102+/r138#9

Ref# 49 MICHEL,Aime: FS & STRAIGHT LINE TH: Page No. 130 : FARMLANDS

[Ref. jdc1:] JOURNAL "LE JOURNAL DU CENTRE":

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[... Other cases...]

BRESSUIRE. -- An employee of the slaughterhouse, Mr. Angelo Girardeau, 55, resident of Breuil-Chaussée (Deux-Sèvres), said he saw on his way to work a circular machine near which stood a being who appeared to him as dressed in a kind of diving suit. That being went to Mr. Girardeau who, frightened, fled. Shortly after, the circular machine departed again at a very high speed.

[... Other cases...]

[Ref. lpv1:] "LE PETIT VAROIS" NEWSPAPER:

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AN AUTHORIZED OPINION

"FLYING SAUCERS?
NOT SERIOUS!"

says Professor SCHATZMAN
Researcher at the Astro-Physics Institute

Paris. -- The "flying saucers", which poison the Western skies whenever important international events occur, extend their field of action over the African continent.

An official report to the Government of the Ivory Coast by the administrator of the Danane subdivision, 500 kilometers north-west of Abidjan, reported a "phenomenon" observed on 19 September, 8:30 p.m. to 09:05 p.m., by the said head of subdivision, Mr. Vernhet, his wife and Reverend Yvard, gathered in the courtyard of the Residence.

It was a luminous spot surrounded by a halo which at first grew rapidly, moving towards or away from the horizon. The witnesses saw the machine lighting a powerful headlight, sometimes directed upwards, sometimes downwards. The ovoid-shaped craft was surmounted by a cupola, and light rays seemed to be detached from each side.

When it disappeared after half an hour, the witnesses saw clearly - according to the report - two halos of light, oval in shape, forming at the presumed location of the craft which moved without any noise.

The same day, at Soubre, 250 kilometers north-west of Abidjan, similar phenomena were observed by the head of subdivision.

In France, flowering flourishes, passing through all forms of flying crockery: in Corbigny (Nièvre), it is a luminous orange disc moving vertically; in Breuil-Caussée [sic] (Deux-Sèvres) it is a diver mounted on a plate that scared an employee of the center of slaughter; in Vron (Somme), it is a millstone around which strange individuals prowl and flies away; in Levroux (Indre), it is a luminous machine 1 meter in diameter that is spotted "at the height of the buildings" by two widows of the area, and in Vatan (also in the Indre), it is a ball that 15 people see dancing like a dancer. In Milly-la-Forêt (S.-et-O.) it is a half-moon surmounted by a ring that appears to a restaurant owner.

Finally, on Monday in Chamonix for more than an hour, the officers of the high mountain school, many gendarmes of Chamonix and a pilot specializing in high-altitude flight flying over the region at that time followed the moves of a brilliant machine of bizarre form between Mount Lachat and Mount Blanc.

The opinion of a scientist

If one addresses the most qualified scientific circles, there are two attitudes: that of refusing to answer on the pretext that the problem does not exist and that of critically examining the published testimonies and to provide public opinion, confused and excited by the Press, the positive element allowing to recognize the natural phenomena.

This latter attitude is that of Professor Evry Schatzman, a research fellow at the Institute of Astrophysics and a lecturer at the Sorbonne, to whom we have asked to enlighten our readers.

"Is it true that scientists are beginning to take the flying saucers seriously?"

- I have never met any astronomer who believes the flying saucer stories [ast]. I have personally read many books on this subject, seeking to grasp the exact meanings of the testimonies reported. By admitting descriptions made in good faith - which is always to be doubted - it always results in a perplexity as to the elements that can be drawn from it. In the majority of cases they are incomprehensible: the precise hour, the duration, the exact direction of the "phenomenon" is not known, nor even if it occurred by day or night. Or they are made unreliable by details that cannot be distinguished. And they are reported with the intention of making believe in the mystery. When one has a precise and complete description, one can do what is at stake and which can make illusion for the heated imagination of a public knowingly deceived for commercial and political purposes.

- Can you describe such phenomena?

- The list is long and not yet exhausted, because it is necessary to take into account still unknown atmospheric and meteorological phenomena. Among the phenomena which may give rise to misunderstandings, these are the most characteristic, not to mention the "visions" prompted by the causes of popular anxiety, such as these parachutists spotted by artillerymen in May 1940, who every night shoot at... Venus!

1. The rising and setting of the planets (Especially Venus and Jupiter).

2. The "shooting stars" and the "fireballs": one tonne a day arrives on the earth. The light is produced by the heating of the aura on the meteoric trajectory. The smallest shooting stars visible to the naked eye are grains of matter of 1 milligram which vanish completely between 120 and 90 kilometers. Only the fast fall on the ground limits the complete destruction of the bolides, that a longer course in the atmosphere would also annihilate.

3. The phenomena of "parhelia", which give rise to false suns, together with halos, and which are explained by the presence in the upper atmosphere of hexagonal prismatic ice needles. The concentration of light rays (sun and moon) in calm air on these crystals produces luminous spots on the right and left of the sun or moon at an equal distance from the halo radius of 22 degrees 5. A halo occurs more with other suns or other moons, with a double angular diameter.

Thus the inhabitants of Péronne "believed to see" an unexpected sun eclipse on June 20 and 21. A normal halo of exceptional intensity occurred, about which Daniel Roguet, astronomical correspondent, described the effects in these terms:

"At certain times, depending on the cirrhus [sic] variation, the inside of the halo was very dark gray-black and the iridescent colors of the halo as bright as those of a beautiful rainbow, beyond it, a milky sky, slightly ocher, forming a magnificent contrast with the central part".

4. The high-voltage power line balls that serve as landmarks for aviators were recently mistaken for mysterious craft by cyclists who at night saw these balls swept by the lighthouse of an airfield.

5. Weather balloons from meteorologists.

6. Ball lightning: these are configurations that occur at certain thunderstorms, with a precarious charge balance.

7. The phenomenon of mirage in the atmosphere. You know how it happens on the ground: the light rays do not propagate in a straight line in hot air, but they just reflect on the film of overheated air, for example by the road tar during the summer. You think you see puddles of water in front of you [mir1]. The inversion of temperature at altitude also causes a change in the index of refraction: hence the effect for an aviator to see a spot of light go straight ahead, while this point has its real source on the ground. [mir2]

The object, which always seems to be at the speed of the airman, is, moreover, characteristic of the object situated at very great distances.

- But is it not possible to scientifically design terrestrial craft comparable to the "saucers" seen here and there?

No, for the great velocities of which the "witnesses" claim these "machines" are animated could only be reached in regions of rarefied air, at the limit of the atmosphere. The mechanical action of the air on their surface would soon have dispersed the molecules of the substance which they would be made of.

In short, to summarize the scholar's thought, there are three elements to be distinguished in these flying saucers stories:

1. A scientific element: discussion of observations, explanation of natural phenomena, sociological explanation of the phenomena of collective hallucination [hal].

2. A logical element: inconsistency of opinions and testimonies.

3. A political element: excitement of public opinion, substitution of imaginary problems for real problems, etc. [pol]

Mr. Evry Schatzman has enumerated the phenomena of vision, false perception, and hallucinations which may explain the most precise and complete testimonies-which are a minor infirmity and always subject to caution.

There is no scientist to take seriously the assumptions made by scientific writers, science-fiction specialists and members of the Pentagon [pol], who have also renounced the theory of extraterrestrial craft, as revealed in the last book by Mr. Keyhoe.

The saucers museum is always empty of exhibits. And it is difficult to admit, if the "saucers" are terrestrial craft, that we never collected a single fragment [fra], never heard the supersonic detonation [sup], nor ever observed a perturbation in the air.

It should also be noted that "saucers" and "other cigarillos" seem to be systematically missig in the Soviet skies, Chinese skies and people's democratic countries... [pol] [est]

This is not the place to comment on the "true" - there are - and the "false" in the remarks attributed to Evry Schatzman; I wanted to make a few brief comments anyway:

[ast] This is literally true: Evry Schatzman certainly never met an astronomer "giving cfrredence to the saucer stories". What would be false is to claim that none existed (Hynek, La Paz, Tombaugh...)

[pol] Like many other French scientists of that time, Evry Schatzman was a Marxist, with an devotion to the ideology of the USSR. It had been claimed in these circles that the "saucers" were "political", that is, the "Pentagon" used them to make people anxious, whereas Communist countries would not do such a thing.

[est] It is totally false that there were no "saucers" in the Communist countries. Read Boris Shurinov, Felix Zigel, for example.

[mir1] It must be understood that the mirages on the ground do not make appear "saucers" nor "spacecraft".

[mir2] Evry Schatzman believed correct the ideas of the "skeptic" American astronomer Donald Menzel. They are without foundation on this matter; there has never been anything like a "luminous mirage in the sky". What can happen is a refraction of radar waves, detecting objects on the ground (truck, boats) and then showing them on the radar screens - but with the speed of movement and the trajectory of the truck or boat... The radarists of the time had to recognize them as such; later, these "false echoes", these radar returns of slow objects on the ground were filtered electronically so thatthe radar men did not have to bother about them anymore.

[sup] It is the French scientist Jean-Pierre Petit who later showed how even with our already known technologies (MHD), it would be possible to suppress the sonic boom. The argument could stand in 1954, it should no longer be used.

[fra] There is no shortage of cases with "fragments"; certainly often debatable if not debunked. The museum of the saucers remains to be built, no one having ever been concerned to preserve correctly the most intriguing fragments.

[hal] Mistakes are obviously not "collective hallucinations", the journalist does not seem to understand. Misinterpretations and collective misinterpretations exist, "collective hallucinations" simply do not exist. The problem is very rarely a "false perception", it is often a "false interpretation".

[Ref. hws1:] HAROLD T. WILKINS:

The author indicates that at Bressuire, France, in 1954, Angelo Dinardeau [sic] saw at dawn a saucer in a field, all aureoled with light. A being in a sort of diving suit fled into the saucer and took off in a flash.

[Ref. gbr1] GRAY BARKER:

Angelo Dinardeau [sic], 55, said that on his way to work near Bressuire he saw a luminous machine parked on the ground. Something dressed in a kind of diving suit was moving about, but it fled into the machine and took off when it apparently saw him.

[Ref. tbr1:] TED BLOECHER:

Ted Bloecher says that on the 4th and 5th of October 1954 in France, literally dozens of landings took place all over France, including one in Bressuire.

He gives the source: "London Eve. News, 10/4/54".

[Ref. jgu1:] JIMMY GUIEU:

At 5:45 in Bressuire (Deux-Sevres) Angelo Girardo, on motorcycle on the way to his work, sees a luminous machine "like a barrel upright in grass." A man of small size stood at 2 or 3 m from it. He wore a kind of dark suit but was head naked. He made signs towards the witness, but this latter, not reassured at all, fled away.

Jimmy Guieu has the wrong date when he indicates that the event occurred on September 27, 1954.

[Ref. aml1] AIME MICHEL:

Aimé Michel mentions the observation on the ground of October 3, 1954 at dawn, by Mr. Angelo Girardo, aged 55, inhabitant of Breuil-Chaussée in the Deux-Sèvres, employee at the slaughter-houses of Bressuire, who was riding his bicycle on main road 148B towards Bressuire to go to his work.

He was within 4 kilometers before Bressuire when he arrived close to the corn silo of the agricultural cooperative of Bressuire when he found himself vis-a-vis a circular machine three meters in diameter approximately which was landed on the ground.

He stopped, amazed, and saw a being of small size dressed in a kind of diving-suit beside the machine. This small being seemed to start to move towards Mr. Girardo who was terrified and escaped, but without stopping to watch the being.

The being returned towards its machine, penetrated in it, and the machine flew away at a vertiginous speed.

[Ref. mc1] "MICHEL CARROUGES":

The author indicates that on October 3, 1954 at 5:45 a.m. Mr. Girardo rode by bicycle on a road at the entry of Bressuire, going to his work and was suddenly face to face with a kind of "upright barrel in the grass" at the edge of the road.

There was a small being close to the craft, who made a sign to him.

According to the version by Garreau page 131, the being had the head naked, but according to all other versions (F.S. October 5, Figaro October 4, Michel page 221) he wore a diving-suit.

[Ref. jve5:] JACQUES VALLEE:

204 000.44190 46.83420 03 10 1954 06 00 202 BRESSUIRE.4KM.ESE F 0111 2C** 221

[Ref. jve1:] JACQUES VALLEE:

October 3, 1954, (at dawn), Bressuire (France):

Angelo Girardo, 55, a stockyard dawn employee, was going to work when he saw a circular craft 3 m diameter and a small figure wearing a diving suit, standing close by. The object took off at a fantastic speed. (Le Figaro, 4 Oct. 1954; France-Soir, Libération, la Croix, 5 Oct. 1954).

Note: In the 1972 version, sources are only noted as "P. 32, M. 130".

[Ref. jve2:] JACQUES VALLEE:

182) October 3, 1954, (at dawn), Bressuire (France):

Angelo Girardo, 55, a stockyard dawn employee, was going to work when he saw a circular craft 3 m diameter and a small figure wearing a diving suit, standing close by. The object took off at a fantastic speed. (P 32, M 130).

[Ref. cln1:] CORAL AND JIM LORENZEN:

The authors indicate that on October 3, 1954, at dawn, a circular craft of about three meters in diameter was seen near Bressuire, France, by a 55 year old man who was going to work. He saw a small figure apparently wearing a diving suit nearby, and when the little fellow entered the object, it took off at high speed.

[Ref. jve3:] JACQUES VALLEE:

The author indicates that on October 3, 1954, at dawn, a circular apparatus of approximately 3 meters in diameter was seen close to Bressuire by a 55 year-old man who was going to work. A small silhouette, dressed in a diving suit was seen close to it. The object flew away at a terrifying speed.

[Ref. gal1:] CHARLES GARREAU AND RAYMOND LAVIER:

The two authors, journalists and ufologists, indicate that on October 3, 1954 at dawn, according to their newspaper clippings personal file, a workman of the slaughter house of Bressuires, Angelo Girardo, aged 55, went to his work when, had just left his residence in Breuil-Chaussée, being on his bicycle on National Road 148 B, arriving at the level of the agricultural silos of the Bressuire Coopérative, found himself "face to face" with a circular machine of approximately three meters in diameter which was posed on the ground.

He was surprised by this unexpected obstacle and put foot at ground. He saw a being of small size which seemed to him to be dressed of a diving-suit, close to the machine. The being pretended to move towards the witness, who went back in fear, but without leaving the "diver" of his sight.

The being returned to his machine and entered there, and a few seconds later the disc rose "at a vertiginous speed."

[Ref. prn1:] PETER ROGERSON:

355 3 October 1954 0545 hrs

BRESSUIRE (FRANCE) Angelo Girardo (55), stockyard employee, was going to work when, near the silo of the Bressuire farm co-op, he saw a circular craft 3m diameter and standing close by a small figure wearing a diving suit which walked towards him. As the witness cycled away in terror, the little man reentered the craft, which took off at a fantastic speed. (M182 Figaro, 4 Oct 1954; France-Soir, Liberation, La Croix, 5 Oct 1954; Michel II, 130: Guieu II, 131: Carrouges S, 158: Pereira V, 193)

[Ref. agd1:] ALAIN GAMARD:

032 03/10/1954 2 Mor .g Bressuire 79 Angelo Girardo.

The columns are explained as:

"Column 1 consists of individual case identification numbers. Column 2 refers to the relevant case dates, and column 3 to the time of the day when the sightings were made. Column 4 is a brief statement of the locality from which, or nearest to which, the original observations were made, while column 5 lists the French departments (equivalent to the British counties) in which the localities are situated. Finaliy, column 6 gives the surname of the principal eyewitness/es in each case."

[Ref. jve7:] JACQUES VALLEE - "HISTORIA" MAGAZINE:

October 3, 1954 (at twilight). Bressuire (Deux Sèvres).

Angelo Girardo, aged fifty-five, slaughterhouse employee, was going to work when he saw a circular craft 3 meters in diameter and, next to it, a small figure wearing a suit. The object moved away at a vertiginous speed.

[Ref. ldl1:] LUMIERES DANS LA NUIT:

The magazine editors, in connection with an observation of 1972, point out that it is said that there was a landing with humanoid between Breuil-Chaussée and Bressuire, 4.5 km, on October 3, 1954, and invite to see Aimé Michel, in "Planète" page 165.

[Ref. ous1:] MAGAZINE D'UFOLOGIE "OURANOS":

The magazine lists cases in whoich the witness(es) approchaed the phenomenon to a very short distance, including:

03/ 1 0/ 1 954 à Bressuires - M. Angelo Girardo à moins de 10 m.

[Ref. rpt1:] RENE PACAUT:

French ufologist René Pacaut explains that during the course of his field investigations, he could check the credibility of old cases, like that of Angelo Girardo on October 3, 1954.

He reminds of the alleged facts: at dawn, Angelo Girardo was riding his bicycle to reach his workplace. While arriving at the height of the silos of the agricultural cooperative of the city, he saw an obstacle appear in front of him. He told:

"I put foot at ground, and I approached. It was a circular machine of 3 meters in diameter posed on the road. At its side, a dwarf dressed of a diving suit stood who, when seeing me, prepared to jump at me. I acknowledge that I had a movement of retreat, but I put myself together and I stared at him intensely. Then he climbed in his machine which took off at full speed..."

Angelo hastened to go tell that to his colleagues. The story very quickly became told in the entire city then came to the newspaper offices of entire France: the landing of a saucer on a street in the center of a town, was a rare event.

17 years later, René Pacaut searched all the town of Bressuire to find Angelo Girardo. After one day of research, he ended up finding his widow, who stated to him with a sorry smile:

"Do not waste your time anymore. Now that my poor Angelo is deceased, I can as well tell you: he had invented this story entirely. Well that's how he was, he loved to play tricks on his buddies!"

[Ref. fru1:] MICHEL FIGUET AND JEAN-LOUIS RUCHON:

These authors indicate that the witness Angélo Girardo, aged 55, workman at the Bressuires slaughterouse, was on his bicycle on RN 148B. While arriving at the grain silos of the agricultural cooperative of Bressuire, he faced a circular machine, 3 m in diameter, landed on the road. Surprised, he puts a foot on the ground. Close to the craft, he sees a small being dressed in a diving-suit which beckons to him to approach. Seized by panic Girardo backs up without leaving the being from sight. The being goes back towards the apparatus and enters. A few seconds later the disc rises at vertiginous speed.

The authors note that Jimmy Guieu has a wrong date and his version is different, that the craft was in the grass and not on the road, that the being was naked head and not head covered of a diving-suit. The witness did not see the being enter the craft.

The authors give as sources case 182 of the Vallée catalogue, Michel Carrouges in "Les apparitions de Martiens" page 119, Jimmy Guieu in "Black-Out sur les S.V. page 149, Garreau and Lavier in "Face aux ET" page 183, Aimé Michel in "A propos des S.V. page 165; Quincy; and Le Journal du Centre for October 5, 1954.

[Ref. bbr1:] GERARD BARTHEL AND JACQUES BRUCKER:

One year later Gerard Barthel and Jacques Brucker explain that it was a hoax, according to a statement of a son of Mr. Girardo. They say the invented sighting was at Breuil-la-Chaussée.

[Ref. mft1:] MICHEL FIGUET:

Nr of the J. C. Fumoux list Nr of Francat list Localization Date Class Credibility Sources Number of W
023 120 Bressuire 03/10 CE3 E [= "Expliqué"] Pacaut 1 T

[Ref. mft2] MICHEL FIGUET:

Michel Figuet indicates that the case of Bressuire on 10/03/1954 was a hoax by Mr Girardo, deceased, according to a counter-investigation by Mr. Pacaut, and Barthel and Brucker page 177.

[Ref. goe1:] GODELIEVE VAN OVERMEIRE:

The Belgian ufologist reports the brief summary by Jimmy Guieu, indicating its source, "Blackout sur les S.V.", Fleuve Noir pubisher 1956, pages 148 to 149. she notes that the date given by Jimmy Guieu is erroneous, and that the description by this author would be doubtful.

She then gives the summary by Michel Figuet and Jean-Louis Ruchon in their book "OVNI, Premiers Dossiers Complets...", Alain Lefeuvre publisher, 1979, page 96.

She informs that actually, the only base that the ufologists used were newspaper articles from Le Figaro for October 4, 1954, La Croix, Paris Presse, L'Aurore, France-Soir, and Libération for October 5, 1954.

She notes that nobody referred to the journalistic source made up of two articles of the regional daily newspaper La Nouvelle République du Centre-Ouest for October 4, 1954, page 2 and 3 of the Deux-Sèvres issue, and that took 17 years before someone, René Pacaut, moved to locate the witness, which he reports in "Ils ont rencontré des extraterrestres", A. Lefeuvre publisher, 1978, pages 177-178.

She indicates that the affair is also reported by A. Gamard in E. Zurcher, "Les apparitions d'humanoïdes", A. Lefeuvre publisher, 1979, page 176-177.

René Pacaud revealed that it was a hoax. Angelo Girardo, the witness, being deceased, he learned from his wife that her late husband had invented the story as he loved to play pranks on his buddies.

Van Overmeire indicates that Gerard Barthel and Jacques Brucker, in La Grande Peur Martienne, also mentioned that this was a mystification, according to the declaration of a son of A. Girardo.

[Ref. fdt1:] FREDERIC DUMERCHAT:

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Francat:

The case of Bressuire, user manual

- by Frédéric Dumerchat

Close encounter of the third kind in Bressuire, in the Deux-Sèvres, on October 3, 1954: mechanisms of a hoax, manipulation of information and ufological mystifications.

A "testimony"

Press articles (Le Figaro of Oct. 4, 1954, La Croix, Paris-Presse, L'Aurore, France Soir, Liberation of Oct. 5, 1954...) were the only base of information for the ufologists who cited this CE3. (2) They did not refer to the journalistic "source" of two articles in the regional newspaper La Nouvelle République du Centre-Ouest of 4 Oct. 1954, pp. 2 and 3 of the Deux-Sèvres edition, it took seventeen years for someone, René Pacaut, to travel to find the witness.

In Ils Ont Rencontré des Extra-Terrestres (3), R. Pacaut revealed that it was a hoax. Angelo Girardo, the "witness", having passed away, he went to see his wife. She told him that her husband had invented the story because he loved to "fool" his friends. Gerard Barthel and Jacques Brucker, in La grande peur Martienne (4), also mentioned that he performed a hoax, according to the statement of a son of A. Girardo.

I got in touch with him. Jean-Claude Girardo is a teacher and lives in the Deux-Sèvres. During several conversations and in a written communication of March 30, 1983, he confirmed to me that his father, who died in 1961, had indeed elaborated this hoax in order to "fool" one or more workmates at the slaughterhouse of Bressuire where he was employed at the time, perhaps on the suggestion of a team leader. He does not think he was able to develop this story all alone.

His father was more likely to find himself at the center of a small scheme set up by several people. Machination, which he did not dare to deny when his "adventure" having been rumored, the local correspondent of La Nouvelle République du Centre Ouest came to see him.

I specify that Jean-Claude Girardo, twelve-year-old at the time, does not have a precise memory of the case. He mostly restored it from the story of his mother and it is not possible for him to be more explicit. There was no longer any talk of this case in the family home because, certainly, of the magnitude it had taken at the time.

I finally learned that the witness's son had been contacted by telephone by G. Barthel and J. Brucker and that R. Pacaut did meet his mother.

In the first article, common to all the departmental publications of La Nouvelle République du Centre Ouest, one can read that A. Girardo, fifty-five-year-old and living at Breuil-Chaussée, observed at 5:45 a.m., while he was going to work on a moped, at a distance of 700 meters from Bressuire, near a wheat silo, a luminous craft resembling a barrel. Near it, at a distance of two or three meters, stood a small man, bareheaded, dressed in a kind of one-piece outfit. The latter made several gestures of the hand. Not very reassured, he continued and looked back, but everything was gone.

The second article, specific to the Deux Sèvres edition, is much more interesting. The vagueness of the answers makes one guess the embarrassment of the "witness" and reveals a possible mystification. We learn, under the title "A worker saw a man like a scuba diver in a round machine" that the story has spread to the journalist of Bressuire who then phoned A. Girardo. "Here is a summary of the statement that Mr. Girardeau (sic, we find several times this francization of the name) made to his entourage on arriving at the slaughterhouses and that he confirmed to us on the phone." The journalist goes to his home

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He describes him as "a serious man" about whom he has gathered good information. But "the worker speaks, alas!, the French with much difficulty that does not facilitate anything...". As its name states, A. Girardo is indeed of Italian origin. His answers are very vague. "It was notably impossible to evaluate the luminosity of the apparatus, but as for the luminous shape seen, it was perhaps 1 m 50 high and bulging like a standing barrel". As for the "diver" our interlocutor indicated that what made him use this qualifier was the clothing: a sort of big, very dark combination. But the man was bareheaded and small, without being possible to specify anything more." Thus the data of the interview are the following: a luminous craft similar to a standing barrel, one meter fifty high a small man, bareheaded and dressed in a kind of fat, very dark jumpsuit, who makes several gestures, the witness does not stop, when he looks back, everything had disappeared.

[Image caption:] Extract from the Journal du Centre, October 5, 1954

It will be noticed that the object is not really described as circular, that the only dimension indicated is that of one meter fifty, that the "man" is simply small and dressed in an outfit, but that A. Girardo did use the term "diver", and that he saw nothing of the departure of this craft and its occupant.

Yet, in the first part of his report, the journalist describes the craft as round and writes that once the unknown went up inside, it disappeared in an unspecified direction. We already note the interpretation of the words.

The other local periodical published in the Deux-Sèvres, Le Courrier de l'Ouest, in its Oct. 4, 1954 issue, Bressuire section, remained much more skeptical. "An employee of the slaughterhouse claims to have seen yesterday a luminous craft and its driver stopped near the wheat silo", this "pilot" is also a normal size.

The reading of the departmental editions of the two dailies, Nouvelle République and Courrier de l'Ouest (*), makes it possible to locate the origin of the elements of the mystification. A. Girardo could, of course, have known about it.

Here are some examples, which seem quite convincing, drawn only from La Nouvelle République. Marius Dewilde's adventure is reported on Sept. 13 at p.2, and Sept. 16 at p. 1, with photo support... It is about a craft and two beings of human appearance, not exceeding one meter and dressed in diving suits.

For Sept. 15, p.8, Sept. 16, p. 7, and Sept. 17 at p. 1, with photo, we discover the encounter of Antoine Mazaud: a being shakes his hand.

For Sept. 29, p. 6, we learn that Yves David, on the road from Cenon to Vouneuil (the Vienne), saw a craft posed on the ground and a small being which tapped on his shoulder, regained the object that disappeared instantly. On Oct. 2, p. 8, so the day before the pseudo-meeting, in Marcilly-sur-Vienne (the Indre-et-Loire), Georges Gatey allegdly saw a "circular machine", and a small man dressed in a diving suit, with a scuba helmet, who climbed back into his craft, which jerked up and disappeared. The newspaper comes back from the rest on the 4th with a sketch on the first page. Observations had already been reported in the department: for example, Oct. 2, p. 4, one could read that the inhabitants of Thouars had seen two "discs" at nightfall.

The case of A. Mazaud, (who has certainly observed a helicopter and his pilot) (5), and that of Mr. Dewilde, (who is certainly not irreducible) (6), played an important role in the "wave" of 1954. That of Marcilly is a hoax and that of Y. David, a journalistic invention (8). G. Barthel and J. Brucker showed what one could think of the small French divers of 1954 who of course enetered the typology of aliens.

From distortions to theories.

This case is found in all the constituent books of French ufology. Beyond the fact that it is a hoax, dependent on the saucer imagery of the time, conveyed by the media, beyond the approximations and errors in the way it is reported, (due to alterations of press articles); this pseudo-encounter allows, at its level, to realize the degradation and the

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manipulation of "flying saucer" information rightly noted by Michel Monnerie, G. Barthel and J. Brucker (10).

Mystified and mystifying themselves - most often unconsciously without doubt - as to the objectivity of their studies, the main concern of the ufologists thus appears as the reduction of the journalistic matter, major source of their works, to their ufological certainties: circular and luminous craft, small humanoid, orthotenic alignment, flight path corridors, sudden disappearance, all that was missing was the moped engine failure.

For Le Figaro of Oct. 4 and La Croix and Paris Press of Oct. 5, the machine, circular for both first newspapers left at high speed. In France-Soir and Libération of Oct. 5, it was told of "a flying diver" and "a diver mounted on a plate".

In Black-out sur les soucoupes volantes (11), Jimmy Guieu has the ate wrong, while he does not give the journalistic origin of his version, it is nevertheless faithful. The object nevertheless became a "spacecraft" and he remarks: "It is regrettable that these machines were not seen by a competent investigator who did not fail to approach... to see them maybe taking off at once, and we have never, at the CIEO, stopped advocating calmness in front of the starships of another world."

For Aimé Michel, who does not indicate his source, Mysterious objets célestes (12), the craft is circular and three meters in diameter, (this is the first time that we see this latest "precision" brought to us, the being has gone on board again and flew off at a vertiginous speed... A. Girardo would never have left the strange visitor from sight, this is also a scoop. "Vision of mentally deficient or reality, it does not matter: in both cases, the event occurred on the line Bergerac-departmental 16 - Angouleme-Saint-Maixent line." This case is therefore on one of his famous orthotenic alignments. I did not find any trace in the local press of the case of St-Maixent.

In Michel Carrouges' book, Les Apparitions de Martiens (13), the object is a kind of barrel standing in the grass, he then wonders about the difference between versions, one where the being is bareheaded, the others where he wears a diving suit. Origin of his information: the books of J. Guieu and A. Michel quoted, plus Le Figaro and France-Soir.

Jacques Vallée includes it in his catalog, Chroniques des appaitions extraterrestres (14): "circular craft of 3m of diameter", "a small person dressed in a diving suit", and gives as source A. Michel and four titles of the national press.

In Face aux Extra-Terrestres, 1975 (15), by Charles Garreau and Raymond Lavier, the craft is still circular and three meters in diameter, the witness did not leave the diver from sight, the latter enters his "disk" which rises at a vertiginous speed. This case is right on one of their "corridors of flights and landings". Their references: "clipping, personal file".

Michel Figuet uses these elements in his catalog (16). But since then, he reports it as a hoax in his new Francat catalog (17). The case is still on the map by Lumières Dans La Nuit devoted to 1954 sightings and other articles or books, but it would be tedious to continue this "compilation".

This charming little humanoid was the only one attested in the Deux-Sèvres, with those who would have been seen in March or April 1955 in the forest of Chizé. The witnesses of this last case, who did not leave a trace in the local press, I checked, are anonymous. It is known only by a phone call to a Europe 1 radio show of May 30, 1975 (18).

UFOs, nothing but UFOs...

The study of this case, faced with a wider work, especially on the "wave" of 1954 in the Deux-Sèvres and Vienne, com-

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prizes most of the remarks of MM. Monnerie, G. Barthel and J. Brucker: deformations of all kinds from the press to the ufologist, non-objectivity, the role of the media in spreading rumors and, later, ufologists in the spread and development of the myth.

It is interesting (and the "wave" of 1954, far from being fully exploited, is an excellent springboard), to show how ufologists have actually acted and to measure, from all angles, the sociopsychological aspect of the UFOs.

Even if ufology is a parascience, it remains nonetheless, and more than ever, that the work remains. But we still have to agree on the content, the rigor and the prospects of this work.

Frédéric Dumerchat

(*) Directed with Brigitte Dumerchat for the "wave" of 1954 and for all the cases of the years 1950 - 1960 listed in the UFO literature (work that will be the subject of a publication).

Notes:

[Ref. lgs1:] LOREN GROSS:

3 octobre. Bressuire, France. (aube)

Petit personnage en tenue de plongeur.

Michel a écrite:

M. Angelo Girardo, âgé de 55 ans, demeurant à Breuil-Chaussée (Deux-Sèvres), allait en vélo vers Bressuire, à cinq ou six miles de distance, lorsque, comme il approchait du silo à grains de la Ferme Coopérative de Bressuire, il se retrouva presque sur le dessus d'une machine en forme de disque de près de dix pieds de diamètre, reposant sur le sol. M. Girardo s'est arrêté, stupéfait, et remarqué à côté de la machine un petit personnage vêtu d'une sorte de combinaison de plongée. La petite créature a fait comme si elle allait se diriger vers M. Girardo, qui a commencé à pédaler à nouveau, terrifié, mais en regardant le mystérieux visiteur tant qu'il pouvait. Celui-ci se retourna vers sa machine et est monté dedans, et l'objet a décollé à une vitesse vertigineuse." (xx.)

(xx.) Michel, Aime. Flying Saucers and the Straight-Line Mystery. p.130.

[Ref. lgs1:] LOREN GROSS:

3 October. Bressuire, France. (dawn)

Small figure in a diving suit.

Michel wrote:

"M. Angelo Girardo, aged 55, residing at Breuil-Chaussee (Deux-Sevres), was bicycling toward Bressuire, five or six miles away, when, as he neared the grain silo of the Bressuire Farm Co-operative, he found himself almost on top of a diskshaped machine nearly ten feet in diameter, resting on the ground. M. Girardo stopped, dumbfounded, and noticed next to the machine a small figure clad in a kind of diving suit. The little creature made as though to head for M. Girardo, who started to pedal again, terrified, but watching the mysterious visitor as long as he could. The latter turned back toward his machine and stepped in, and the object took off at dizzying speed." (xx.)

(xx.) Michel, Aime. Flying Saucers and the Straight-Line Mystery. p.130.

[Ref. sdn1:] STEVEN DUNN, OCCUPANTS DATABASE:

DATE DESCRIPTION MICAP_CLAS REF
10/03/1954 Bessuire, FR
3 OCT 54
55-year old man going to work saw a 10 FT diameter saucer. A small figure in a diving suit entered the craft which then left at high speed.
CE-3-103 Lorenzen UTWS, pg 172

[Ref. ars1:] ALBERT ROSALES:

115.

Location. Bressuire Deux Sevres France

Date: October 3 1954

Time: 0545A

M Angelo Girardo was traveling by motor scooter to his work at Bressuire when he noticed a luminous craft, "like a cask standing upright in the grass." A man of small stature, dressed in a dark uniform without helmet, was standing beside the object; he gesticulated toward Girardo, who sped away. When he looked back, object and man had disappeared.

Humcat 1954-17

Source: Jimmy Guieu, Black Out

Type: C

[Ref. rhl1] RICHARD HALL:

TABLE 1. UFO OCCUPANT SIGHTINGS, 1954-1963

[...]

October 3, 1954 Angelo Girardo, Bressuire, France

One small figure in diver's suit; bicyclist came upon 10-foot disc on ground, being next to it; being entered craft and took off.

[...]

[Ref. djn1:] DONALD JOHNSON:

Donald Johnson indicates that on October 3, 1954, Angelo Girardo, 55, a stockyard employee, was going to work in Bressuire, France, at dawn when he saw a circular craft with a three-meter diameter and a small figure wearing a diving suit, standing close by. The object took off at a fantastic speed.

Donald Johnson indicates that the sources are Jacques Vallee, Passport to Magonia, p. 215; Michel Figeut [Figuet] and Jean-Louis Ruchon, OVNI: Le premier dossier complet des rencontres rapprochees en France, p. 111.

[Ref. jbu1:] JEROME BEAU:

Jerome Beau indicates that on Sunday October 3, 1954 at dawn in Bressuire in France, Angelo Girardo went to his work when he saw a circular machine of 3 meters in diameter and, near it, a small character dressed of a diving-suit. The object moved away at a vertiginous speed.

Jérôme Beau indicates that the sources are La Croix, France-Soir, Paris-Presse, for October 3, 1954; Le Figaro, for October 4, 1954; France-Soir, Libération, La Croix, for October 5, 1954, and Vallée, J., case #45, "Rapport sur l'analyse de 200 observations documentées faites en 1954."

[Ref. rin1] "RIGOROUS INTUITION" BLOG:

[... Other cases ...]

October 3: At dawn in Bresseuir, a fifty-five year old stockyard employee was going to work when he saw a small being wearing a diving suit standing near a circular craft about ten feet in diameter. The object swiftly took off.

[... Other cases ...]

[Ref. uda1:] "UFODNA" WEBSITE:

The website indicates that on 3 October 1954 05:45 in Bressuire Deux Sevres, France M Angelo Girardo was traveling by motor scooter to his work at Bressuire when he noticed a luminous craft, "like a cask standing upright in the grass." A man of small stature, dressed in a dark uniform without helmet, was standing beside the object; he gesticulated toward Girardo, who sped away. When he looked back, object and man had disappeared.

The source is a link to a nonexistant web page.

[Ref. uda2:] "UFODNA" WEBSITE:

The website indicates that on 3 October 1954 at 04:00 in "Bressuire N148B 4K, France", there was a "Type 8.1 10 feet disc on ground. Small figure wore diving suit. When it turned toward him witness bicycled away. Looked back, saw entity enter machine, took off at high speed. One luminous disc, about 10 feet across, was observed by one male 55-year-old witness on a road for two minutes (Girardo, A). One 3-foot-tall dwarf, wearing a diver's suit, was seen."

The sources are indicated as Webb, David, HUMCAT: Catalogue of Humanoid Reports; Guieu, Jimmy, Flying Saucers Come from Another World, Citadel, New York, 1956; Michel, Aime, Flying Saucers and the Straight-Line Mystery, S. G. Phillips, New York, 1958; Lorenzen, Coral E., UFOs: The Whole Story, Signet T3897, New York, 1969; Bowen, Charles, The Humanoids: FSR Special Edition No. 1, FSR, London, 1966; Pereira, Jader U., Les Extra-Terrestres, Phenomenes Spatiaux, Paris, 1974; Vallee, Jacques, Computerized Catalog (N = 3073); Vallee, Jacques, Challenge to Science: The UFO Enigma, Henry Regnery, Chicago, 1966; Vallee, Jacques, Preliminary Catalog (N = 500), (in JVallee01); Vallee, Jacques, A Century of Landings (N = 923), (in JVallee04), Chicago, 1969; Schoenherr, Luis, Computerized Catalog (N = 3173); Carrouges, Michel, Les Apparitions de Martiens, Fayard, Paris, 1963; Delaire, J. Bernard, UFO Register Volume 7 (1976), Data Research, Oxford, 1976; Newspaper Clippings; Hall, Richard H., The UFO Evidence, Volume II: A Thirty-Year Report, Scarecrow Press, Lanham, 2000, ISBN:0-8103-3881-8; Hatch, Larry, *U* computer database, Author, Redwood City, 2002.

[Ref. uda3:] "UFODNA" WEBSITE:

The website indicates that on 13 October 1954 in daytime in Bressuire, France, there was a "close encounter with an unidentified craft and its occupants. One luminous disc was observed by one witness (Dinardeau)."

The source is indicated as Wilkins, Harold T., Flying Saucers Uncensored, Citadel, 1955; and "Newspaper Clippings".

[Ref. djn2:] DONALD JONHSON:

Donald Johnson says that on October 3, 1954, at dawn, Angelo Girardo, a 55-year old stockyard worker, was going to work in Bressuire, Deux-Sevres, France. He saw a three meter diameter circular craft with a small figure wearing a diving suit standing close by. The object took off at a fantastic speed.

The sources are noted as "Vallee, Jacques, Passport to Magonia: A Century of Landings, p. 215; Michel Figuet & Jean-Louis Ruchon, OVNI: Le Premier Dossier Complet des Rencontres Rapprochees en France, pp. 111."

[Ref. prn2:] PETER ROGERSON:

October 3 1954. 0545hrs.

BRESSUIRE (DEUX SEVRES: FRANCE)

Angelo Girardo (55), a stockyard employee was going to work, when, near the silo of the Bressuire farm co-operative, he saw a circular object 3m in diameter, and, standing close by, a small figure, wearing a diving suite, that walked towards him. As Angelo cycled away in terror, the little man re-entered the craft, which took off at a fantastic speed. Years later his widow claimed that the story was a hoax on his friends.

Michel 1958 p.130
Vallee Case 182 citing La Croix + France Soir + Liberation all 5 October 1954 + Figaro 4 October 1954 + Guieu 1956b, p.131.
Richard Heiden citing Carrouges 1967, p.158 + Perrira 1966 p.193.
Alain Gamard citing Pacaut 1978 p 177 and personal communication.

[Ref. tai1:] "THINK ABOUT IT" WEBSITE:

Location: Bressuire Deux Sevres France

Date: October 3 1954

Time: 0545A

M. Angelo Girardo was traveling by motor scooter to his work at Bressuire when he noticed a luminous craft, “like a cask standing upright in the grass.” A man of small stature, dressed in a dark uniform without helmet, was standing beside the object; he gesticulated toward Girardo, who sped away. When he looked back, object and man had disappeared.

Source: Jimmy Guieu, Black Out

[Ref. nip1:] "THE NICAP WEBSITE":

*Oct. 3, 1954 - Angelo Girardo, age 55, a stockyard employee, was going to work in Bressuire, France at dawn when he saw a circular craft with a three-meter diameter and a small figure wearing a diving suit, standing close by. The object took off at a fantastic speed. (Sources: Jacques Vallee, Passport to Magonia: A Century of Landings, p. 215, case # 182; Michel Figuet & Jean-Louis Ruchon, OVNI: Le premier dossier complet des rencontres rapprochees en France, p. 111).

[Ref. jgz1:] JULIEN GONZALEZ:

The author indicates that there was a false close encounter of the third kind in Bressuire, Deux-Sèvres, on October 3, 1954, at 05:45 a.m.:

Angelo Girardo, a 55-year-old worker at the slaughterhouse, went to work on his bicycle when he arrived near the wheat silo of the agricultural cooperative of Bressuire. He found himself face to face with a circular machine about 3 meters in diameter, posed on the ground, near which stood a man dressed in a sort of diving suit.

The being then turned towards the witness who, frightened, fled. Soon after, the craft flew away at very high speed.

The sources are listed as Jimmy Guieu, "Black-Out sur les Soucoupes Volantes", page 131; Aimé Michel, "Mystérieux Objets Célestes", page 221; Michel Carrouges, "Les Apparitions de Martiens", page 119.

Julien Gonzalez indicates that in reality, 17 years later, René Pacaut found the widow of the witness who told him that her late husband had at the time invented this story from scratch to fool his friends.

He indicates that the source of the explanation is René Pacaut, "Ils ont rencontré des extraterrestres", page 178.

[Ref. dcn1] DOMINIQUE CAUDRON:

Dominique Caudron indicates that the catalogue of 800 cases published in 1970 by Maurice Santos, is a good example of what one should not do; he indicates to extract from it the list of the cases of October 3, 1954; which he knows well as he had investigated into these cases of his area of Nord. For each case, below the text of the Santos catalogue, he states what should have been written, and the explanation after analysis, when there is one.

Santos wrote that for this case #548 of October 3, 1954, of landing, there had been in Bressuire an Unknown Flying Object reported on the ground with its pilot.

Dominique Caudron says that at dawn, in Bressuire, 79, a cyclist saw a machine of three meters on the ground, and a small being in diving-suit who went up there and flew away at a vertiginous speed (in fact, after investigation by Rene Pacaut: Hoax)

He notes that the numbering of the cases by Santos seemed a good idea, but that it prevents the evolution of the catalogue, whose numbering becomes incoherent at the first update: "For example, this catalogue contains only 10 cases for the area of the Nord, whereas we know 48 of them. How to place the 38 others?"

[Ref. ubk1:] "UFO-DATENBANK":

This database recorded this case 18 times!

Case Nr. New case Nr. Investigator Date of observation Zip Place of observation Country of observation Hour of observation Classification Comments Identification
19540927 27.09.1954 Bressuire France
19541002 02.10.1954 Bressuire France Twilight
19541003 03.10.1954 Bressuire France Twilight CE III
19541003 03.10.1954 Bressuire France Twilight CE III
19541003 03.10.1954 Bressuire France Twilight CE III
19541003 03.10.1954 Bressuire France Morning CE III
19541003 03.10.1954 Bressuire France Twilight CE III
19541003 03.10.1954 Bressuire France CE III
19541003 03.10.1954 Bressuire France 04.00 CE III
19541003 03.10.1954 Bressuire France
19541003 03.10.1954 Bressuire France 06.00
19541003 03.10.1954 Bressuire France Twilight CE III
19541003 03.10.1954 Bressuire France Twilight CE III
19541003 03.10.1954 Bressuire France
19541003 03.10.1954 Bressuire France 04.00 CE III
19541003 03.10.1954 Bressuire France End of day CE III
19541013 13.10.1954 Bressuire France CE III
19541013 13.10.1954 Bressuire France Twilight CE III

[Ref. prn3:] PETER ROGERSON - "INTCAT":

October 3 1954. 0545hrs.

BRESSUIRE (DEUX SEVRES : FRANCE)

Angelo Girardo (55), a stockyard employee was going to work, when, near the silo of the Bressuire farm co-operative, he saw a circular object 3m in diameter, and, standing close by, a small figure, wearing a diving suite, that walked towards him. As Angelo cycled away in terror, the little man re-entered the craft, which took off at a fantastic speed.

Evaluation - Years later, after his death Giraldo's friends told ufologist Rene Pacaut that the story was a hoax to impress his workmates. It appears that La Nouvelle République du Centre-Ouest 4 October 1954, p2 and p3 of the Deux-Sèvres edition would explain that it was a hoax.

Notes:

Two articles of the regional daily newspaper La Nouvelle République du Centre-Ouest of October 4, 1954, p. 2 and 3 in the edition of the department of Deux-Sèvres had explained from the start that it was a hoax. But in spite of that, and in spite of René Pacaut, Barthel and Brucker, and of the easily accessible sources: Godelieve van Overmeire before me, and myself in both French and English since 2002 when I opened this file, the information of the farcical nature of the case was not provided on the websites, almost all continuing to mention it as Vallée or Guieu told about it.

Explanations:

Hoax.

Keywords:

(These keywords are only to help queries and are not implying anything.)

Bressuire, Deux-Sèvres, Angelo Girardo, object, craft, circular, occupant, humanoid, diving suit, speed, landing, hoax, invention

Sources:

[----] indicates sources which I have not yet checked.

Document history:

Version: Created/Changed by: Date: Change Description:
0.1 Patrick Gross August 3, 2007 First published.
1.0 Patrick Gross January 9, 2009 Conversion from HTML to XHTML Strict. First formal version. Additions [uda1], [uda2], [uda3].
1.1 Patrick Gross February 28, 2010 Addition [djn2].
1.2 Patrick Gross March 12, 2010 Addition [mc1].
1.3 Patrick Gross June 4, 2010 Addition [lae1].
1.4 Patrick Gross June 20, 2010 Addition [jve5].
1.5 Patrick Gross July 7, 2010 Addition [rin1].
1.6 Patrick Gross July 29, 2010 Addition [ler1].
1.6 Patrick Gross August 13, 2013 Addition [prn2].
1.6 Patrick Gross August 13, 2013 Addition [prn2].
1.7 Patrick Gross October 3, 2014 Additions [jve7], [lgs1], [tai1], [nip1].
1.8 Patrick Gross October 14, 2016 Addition [dcn1].
1.9 Patrick Gross December 10, 2016 Additions [gbr1], [tbr1], [ubk1].
2.0 Patrick Gross February 17, 2017 Additions [lpv1], [jgz1].
2.1 Patrick Gross November 2, 2019 Additions [jdc1], [ads1], [ous1], [prn1], [agd1], [mft1], [fdt1], [lhh1], [prn3], Summary.

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