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The 1954 French flap:

The index page for the 1954 French flap section of this site is here.

October 1, 1954, Croix-d'Epine, Oise:

Reference number for this case: 1-oct-54-Croix-d'Epine. Thank you for including this reference number in any correspondence with me regarding this case.

Reports:

[Ref. om1:] NEWSPAPER "L'OISE MATIN:"

The case in St-Crepin-Ibouvillers is mentioned in an article of the newspaper L'Oise-Matin about the case in St-Samson-la-Poterie:

THE PASSAGE OF A FLYING CIGAR SEEN
at St-Samson-la-Poterie

After the brainwashed worker of Quarouble, the affectionate Martian of the Auvergne, the flying saucers of Chapelle-en-Serval, the mysterious landing of St-Crepin-Ibouvillers, not to mention the hundreds of strange demonstrations of diabolic crockery, [...]

[Ref. jv1:] JACQUES VALLEE:

The author indicates that on October 2, 1954, at Croix-d'Epine, a young mechanic rode his scooter when he saw a very illuminated object, egg shaped, which was posed on the left side of the road at approximately 15 meters of him. He thinks of having seen short dark shapes "like potato bags" moving close to the object. He accelerated and, when reaching the top of the hill, he looked back. He then saw the object, compared to a "small bus" as for the size, whose color had passed from orange to blue, then with gray-blue, flying away.

The witness was very upset when he arrived at the village, and he fainted when telling his story. Two women submitted independent reports on the object.

[Ref. jv2:] JACQUES VALLEE:

180

Oct. 02, 1954, 08:00 P.M. Croix d'Epine (France).

A mechanic, Ernest Delattre, 19, was riding home on his motor scooter when an egg-shaped object, brilliantly illuminated, landed on the left side of the road 15 m away. He saw short, dark shapes "like potato bags" moving about the object. He sped up, saw the object, the size of a small bus, taking off while its color changed from orange to blue and then to grayish-blue. The witness fainted while telling his story. Two persons in neighboring villages independently reported observing the object. (Personal)

[Ref. gl1:] CHARLES GARREAU AND RAYMOND LAVIER:

The two ufologists and authors indicate that on October 1, 1954 at 07:50 P.M. in Saint-Crépin-Ibouvilliers in the department of the Oise, Ernest Delattre was going back to his home in Saint-Crépin, coming from Méru riding his motorcycle, and had largely exceeded Lormaison when he saw at the vertical and in front of him a luminous object resembling a star. The witness told:

"But its glare was so strange that while driving, I do not lose sight of it. And I see it going down quickly, changing color. It finally takes a phosphorescent bluish gray color and it lands at approximately 200 meters in front of me, at some 15 meters of the road. Me, I continue to drive. Ten seconds later, I pass to his height. It is an ovoid shaped craft of approximately 5 meters height length and 1.50 meters. No noise. But I became frightened because I then see, just at its side, two silhouettes which resemble potato bags, without defined contour, high of about 80 centimeters, who come on the side of the road. I have the vague impression that there are others of them. Then, I accelerate. A little farther along, I look back. The craft took off and follows me for about fifteen meters, during a few seconds, before it suddenly veered and moved away."

The authors indicate that the gendarmes made an investigation following the statements by Mr. Delattre, and that their investigation revealed that two other witnesses had observed at the same time the evolution of the odd machine.

[Ref. jv7:] JACQUES VALLEE - "HISTORIA" MAGAZINE:

October 2, 1954, 08:00 p.m.. Croix d'Epine.

A mechanic, Ernest Delattre, nineteen years old, was returning home on a scooter when an egg-shaped object violently illuminated, landed on the left side of the road, 15 meters away. He saw short, dark shapes, like sacks of potatoes, move near the object. He sped up, saw the object (the size of a small car), get away while its color changed from orange to blue to grayish blue. The witness fainted while telling his story. Without having been informed, two people of the neighboring villages reported observing the object.

[Ref. rs1:] RAY STANFORD:

In his book about the famous UFO landing in Socorro, Ray Stanford indicates a number of other sightings of egg-shaped craft that may be significant in this regard.

Among those cases, he indicates that on October 2, 1954, at Croix d'Epine, France, a man was traveling on his motor-scooter when he saw an egg-shaped object land about fifty feet from him on the left side of the road.

He observed short silhouetted figures moving in the vicinity of the object. The witness sped up, then looked back, and saw the craft that he estimated to be about the length of a small bus take off while altering its surface coloration from orange, to blue, to blue-grey.

When the witness arrived at the nearby village, he was in a state of shock, and he fainted when he told his story. Two women made independent reports of having seen the craft.

[Ref. pd1:] PIERRE DELVAL:

The author indicates that on October 2, 1954, at Croix-de-l'Epine, witnesses saw two absolutely indescribable dark "masses" going down from a machine which had just landed.

The authors note that "the ufologists suppose" that they are robots remote-controlled by an unknown will.

[Ref. bb1:] JACQUES BARTHEL ET GERARD BRUCKER:

The authors indicate a summary without source of the case of Lormaison:

"On October 1, 54, towards 8 p.m., a 19 year old mechanic, Mr Delattre claims to have observed an object in the shape of an egg as well as at 15 m from there rounded shaped resembling potato bags".

They add that the witness specifies that these shapes were moving and comment on that he thus invented "the starch-Martian commonly named Parmentier-Ouranian" but that they become serious again and try to clear up this weird sighting.

They thus state that a collaborator of the "Lumières dans la Nuit" magazine carried out a first counter-investigation and that it emerges from this study that Mr. Delattre, after having been reticent and even hostile to the investigator, had only a very remote and very vague memory of "these potatoid beings". At the time of her second visit, the investigator "perfectly felt that the story of the 'potatoe bags' did not deserve any more credit; only a fugitive vision of an odd phenomenon still supported the story of the mechanic."

They indicate that themselves tried on several occasions to contact Mr Ernest Delattre via his daughter, at his workplace, but in vain and that without pushing their research further they consider that the vision of these shapes "belongs to the collection of space vegetables like the black radish of Wittenheim" and that the case has no credibility whatsoever to them.

The authors note that the only source available to them was a summary by Jacques Vallée in his catalogue, indicating as source "Personal", which makes think that Vallée had had a personal knowledge of the case, while the same Jacques Vallée indicates in his book "Phénomènes Insolites de l'Espace" of 1967, La Table Ronde publisher, that the source is "L'Oise Matin" for October 2, 1954, with the headline "A Martian in St Crepin Ibouvillers?" which is thus surely the so-called "personal" source of Vallée. The authors wonder why he did not give this source in his catalogue, and suppose that it might have been to drown the case in mystery and to make it credible whereas it is a case of no interest.

[Ref. fr1:] MICHEL FIGUET AND JEAN-LOUIS RUCHON:

The two authors indicate that in Lormaison, in the department of Oise, on October 1st, 1954, at 07:50 p.m., Ernest Delattre, 19, mechanic, rides his motorcycle on the road which leads to Saint-Crépin Ibouvillers. He had just left Lormaison when he saw overhead a luminous object resembling first of all a star which goes down quickly while changing color. The object, of blue-gray phosphorescent color finally lands within approximately 200 meters of the witness at about fifteen meters of the road. The witness continues his travels, which brings him at the level of the object, when he realizes it has an ovoid shape. But he becomes frightened when he sees two shapes around the object, "like potato bags," 80 centimeters tall. He continues his ride, the object takes off, follows him on about fifteen meters, suddenly veers and moves away.

The authors quote:

I see it going down quickly, changing color. It finally takes a phosphorescent bluish gray color and it lands at approximately 200 meters in front of me, at some 15 meters of the road. Me, I continue to drive. Ten seconds later, I pass to his height. It is an ovoid shaped craft of approximately 5 meters height length and 1,50 meters. No noise. But I became frightened because I then see, just at its side, two silhouettes which resemble potato bags, without defined contour, high of about 80 centimeters, who come on the side of the road. I have the vague impression that there are others of them. Then, I accelerate. A little farther along, I look back. The craft took off and follows me for about fifteen meters, during a few seconds, before it suddenly veered and moved away."

The witness fainted while he was telling his history. It is said that other people saw a similar object evolving at the same hour.

The authors note that there was an investigation by the Gendarmerie and that the sources are C. Garreau and R. Lavier in "Face aux E.T." page 136 and Jacques Vallée's case 180 "Croix d'Epine", Croix D'Epine maybe being a location between Lormaison and Sant-Crepin d'Ibouvillers.

[Ref. lg1] LOREN GROSS:

Croix D' Epine, France. (10:00 p.m.)

"Fainted while telling the story."

Nineteen-year-old Ernest Delattre was roaring down the highway on his motor scooter near Croix D' Epine 10:00 p.m. on October 2nd, when he noticed a brightly lit, egg-shaped mass dropping down out of the night sky. The UFO came to rest next to the roadway which enabled Delattre to estimate its size. It seemed as big as a bus. As he approached, Delattre thought he saw small, dark, shapes doing something in the vicinity of the UFO, but before he got too close the mystery craft shot skyward, giving off different colors of light, changing from one color to another in turn:orange, blue, and a gray-blue. M. Delattre was so excited he fainted while telling the story to the authorities. 17.

  • 16. Rogerson, Peter."The ~Catalogue." MUFOB New Series 2. March 1976. #36 p.7.
  • 17. Ibid.

[Ref. pb1:] PETER BROOKESMITH:

The author indicates that on October 2, 1954, in Croix d'Epine, France, 19-year-old mechanic Ernest Delatre was riding home on a motor scooter when a brightly lit egg-shaped orange UFO the size of a small bus landed in the road. He saw dark shapes "like potato bags" moving near it. As he approached the UFO took off, changing color to blue. Two other witnesses in nearby villages also independently reported the UFO.

[Ref. js1:] JEAN SIDER:

Ufologist and author Jean Sider indicates that on October 1, 1954, at 07:50 p.m., in "Lormaison / Saint-Crepin-Ibouvillers, Oise" Mr. Ernest Delattre was riding on his way home on a motorcycle. He had exceeded Lormaison when he saw a bright object at the zenith which rapidly came down while changing color, eventually taking a phosphorescent blue gray color.

The object landed about 200 meters from the witness and 15 meters from the road. When the witness reached its level, he noticed that it was egg-shaped, and that near it were two silhouettes like potatoes sacks, about 80 cm tall.

Noting that the apparent creatures were going towards him, he got scared and sped. A little farther, he looked back and noticed that the craft had taken off and was following him at fifteen meters for a little while, and finally suddenly veered and flee.

Jean Sider indicates that his source is "Figuet, p.104-105."

[Ref. ar1:] ALBERT ROSALES:

113.

Location. Croix d'Epine France

Date: October 2 1954

Time: 2000

Ernest Delattre, 19, a mechanic, was riding home on his motor scooter when an egg shaped object, brilliantly illuminated, landed on the left side of the road 15 meters away. He saw short, dark shapes, "like potato bags" moving about the object. He sped up, 7 saw the object, the size of a small bus, taking off while its color changed from orange to blue. The witness fainted while telling his story. The object was observed by 2 other witnesses.

Humcat 1954-65

Source: Jacques Vallee, Passport to Magonia

Type: C

[Ref. dj1:] UFOCAT'S "ON THIS DAY":

On this Day

October 1

[...]

1954 - Mechanic Ernest Delattre, age 19, was riding home on his motor scooter between Lormaison and St-Crepin-Ibouvillers, France at eight o'clock when a brilliantly illuminated egg-shaped object landed on the left side of the road 15 meters away. He saw short, dark shapes "like potato bags" moving about the object. He sped up, saw the object, the size of a small bus, taking off while its color changed from orange to blue and then to grayish-blue. The witness fainted while telling his story. Two persons in neighboring villages independently reported observing the object. (Sources: Jacques Vallee, Passport to Magonia: A Century of Landings, p. 215; Michel Figuet and Jean-Louis Ruchon, OVNI: Le premier dossier complet des rencontres rapprochees en France, p. 104). [Note: Vallee lists the date as October 2nd but Figuet and Ruchon believe the correct date is October 1st.]

[Ref. go1:] GODELIEVE VAN OVERMEIRE:

The Belgian ufologist indicates that in France between Lormaison and St Crepin Ibouvillers, or in Croix d'Epine according to Jacques Vallée, who dates the case October 2, 1954 at 8 p.m., on October 1, 1954 at 07:50 p.m., Ernest Delattre was going back to his house by scooter when an violently illuminated egg shaped object landed on the left side of the road 15 meters further.

He saw short and dark forms resembling potato bags, moving close to the object.

He accelerated, saw that the object of the size of a small bus moved away while its color passed from orange to blue then to greyish blue.

He fainted while telling his story. Without being consulted, two people of the nearby villages reported to have observed the object.

Van Overmeire indicates that the sources are Jacques Vallée in "Chronique des apparitions ET", Denoel, J'ai Lu collection, 1972, page 265, and M. Figuet et J.L. Ruchon in "Ovni, Premier dossier complet...", Alain Lefeuvre publisher, 1979, page 104.

[Ref. fb1:] FABRICE BONVIN:

Fabrice Bonvin notes:

Case #015: 01/10/1954, p. 104 (Lormaîson)

[Ref. jb1:] JEROME BEAU:

Jérôme Beau notes:

Saturday, October 2, 1954

[...]

8 p.m. : In Croix d'Epine (France), Ernest Delattre 1 goes to his house by scooter when 1 egg-shaped object, very illuminated, lands on the left side of the road, 15 m further. He sees short and dark forms, resembling potato bags, move close to the object. He accelerates to approach, sees the object (the size of a small bus) moving away while its color passes from orange to blue then to greyish blue. The witness, upset while arriving at the village, faints when telling his story. Without being consulted, 2 women of the close villages make independent descriptions of the object (8).

[...]

(8) Vallée, J., cas n° 42, "Rapport sur l'analyse de 200 observations documentées faites en 1954"

[...]

[Ref. lc1:] LUC CHASTAN:

Luc Chastan indicates that in the Oise in Lormaison on October 1, 1954 at 19:50 hours, "The witness circulates by motorcycle on the road which leads to St Crepin Ibouvillers. He has just left Lormaison when he sees at his vertical a luminous object initially resembling a star which goes down quickly while changing color. The object of gray blue phosphorescent color finally lands at approximately 200 meters of the witness at about fifteen meters of the road. The witness continues his ride which brings him at the level of the object, he realizes the latter has an ovoid form. But he becomes afraid when he sees two shapes around the object "like potato bags" 80 centimeters high. He continues his ride, the object takes off follows him on about fifteen meters, veers suddenly and moves away. It seems that other witnesses saw the maneuvers of the object."

The source is given as "Ovni, Premier dossier complet... by Figuet M./ Ruchon J.L. ** Alain Lefeuvre pub. 1979".

[Ref. ri1] "RIGOROUS INTUITION" BLOG:

[... Other cases ...]

Dolan in the first volume of his UFOs and the National Security State:

October 2: At 8pm, in Croix d'Epine, a man on his motor scooter saw a bright, oval object land off the road fifty feet from him. He saw short, dark shapes "like potato bags" moving around the object, which was the size of a small bus. It quickly took off, changing from orange to blue, then grayish-blue. The man fainted while telling his story. Two people in nearby villages independently reported seeing the object. (Dolan)

[... Other cases ...]

[Ref. ud1:] "UFODNA" WEBSITE:

The website indicates that on 1 October 1954 at 19:50 in Croix D'Epine, France, "Close encounter with a an unidentified craft and its occupants. One object was observed by three witnesses on a road."

The source is indicated as Hatch, Larry, *U* computer database, Author, Redwood City, 2002.

[Ref. ud2:] "UFODNA" WEBSITE:

The website indicates that on 2 October 1954 at 20:00 in Croix d'Epine, France, "Mechanic riding home on motor scooter when saw egg-shaped UFO, illuminated, landed on left side of road 15 m away. two short, dark shapes "like potato bags" moving about. Object changed color red blue."

And: "Mechanic Ernest Delattre, age 19, was riding home on his motor scooter between Lormaison and St-Crepin-Ibouvillers, France at eight o'clock when a brilliantly illuminated egg-shaped object landed on the left side of the road 15 meters away. He saw short, dark shapes "like potato bags" moving about the object. He sped up, saw the object, the size of a small bus, taking off while its color changed from orange to blue and then to grayish-blue. The witness fainted while telling his story. Two persons in neighboring villages independently reported observing the object."

And: "Close encounter with a an unidentified craft and occupants. Multiple independent witnesses. One orange ovoid object, about 20 feet across, about forty feet away, was observed by three male witnesses, typical age 19, on a road for ten minutes (Delattre, E; Janiki). A non-humanoid being was seen."

And: "Ernest Delattre, 19, a mechanic, was riding home on his motor scooter when an egg shaped object, brilliantly illuminated, landed on the left side of the road 15 meters away. He saw short, dark shapes, "like potato bags" moving about the object. He sped up, 7 saw the object, the size of a small bus, taking off while its color changed from orange to blue. The witness fainted while telling his story. The object was observed by 2 other witnesses."

The sources are indicated as Webb, David, HUMCAT: Catalogue of Humanoid Reports; Guieu, Jimmy, Flying Saucers Come from Another World, Citadel, New York, 1956; Michel, Aime, Flying Saucers and the Straight-Line Mystery, S. G. Phillips, New York, 1958; Menzel, Donald H., The World of Flying Saucers, Doubleday, Garden City, 1963; Bowen, Charles, The Humanoids: FSR Special Edition No. 1, FSR, London, 1966; Vallee, Jacques, Computerized Catalog (N = 3073); Vallee, Jacques, Challenge to Science: The UFO Enigma, Henry Regnery, Chicago, 1966; Vallee, Jacques, Preliminary Catalog (N = 500), (in JVallee01); Vallee, Jacques, A Century of Landings (N = 923), (in JVallee04), Chicago, 1969; Schoenherr, Luis, Computerized Catalog (N = 3173); Delaire, J. Bernard, UFO Register Volume 7 (1976), Data Research, Oxford, 1976; Hatch, Larry, *U* computer database, Author, Redwood City, 2002; Rosales, Albert, Humanoid Sighting Reports Database.

[Ref. ud3:] "UFODNA" WEBSITE:

The website indicates that on 2 October 1954 at 20:00 in Croix d'Epine, France, "An egg-shaped object, brilliantly illuminated, landed. Short, dark shapes "like potato bags" moved about the object."

And: "A mechanic, Ernest Delattre, 19, was riding home on his motor scooter when an egg-shaped object, brilliantly illuminated, landed on the left side of the road 15 meters away. He saw short, dark shapes "like potato bags" moving about the object. He sped up, saw the object, the size of a small bus, taking off while its color changed from orange to blue and then to grayish-blue. The witness fainted while telling his story. Two persons in neighboring villages independently reported observing the object. One blue-orange object was observed."

The source is indicated as Hatch, Larry, *U* computer database, Author, Redwood City, 2002.

[Ref. pr1:] PETER ROGERSON:

October 2 1954, 2000hrs.

CROIX D’ EPINE (OISE : FRANCE)

Mechanic Ernest Delattre was riding home on his motor scooter when a brilliantly illuminated egg-shaped object landed on the left hand side of the road 15m away. He saw short dark shapes that resembled potato bags moving about the object. He sped up and saw this object, which was the size of a small bus, taking off, while its color changed from orange to blue and then to greyish blue. Ernest was so shaken that he fainted while telling his story. Two people in neighboring villages independently reported the story

Vallee case 180 citing “personal” information.

[Ref. jg1:] JULIEN GONZALEZ:

The author indicates that there was a CE3 between Lormaison and Saint-Crépin-Ibouvillers, at the locality "Croix d'Epine", in the Oise, on October 1, 1954, at 07:50 p.m.

Ernest Delattre, 19, mechanic, was returning home by motorcycle, coming from Méru and having largely exceeded Lormaison, when he saw at the vertical and in front of him, a luminous object resembling a star:

"But its glare was so strange that, while riding, I do not lose sight of the thing, and I see it going down quickly, while changing color. It finally takes a bluish gray phosphorescent colour, and lands within approximately 200 meters in front of me, at about fifteen meters of the road. I continued to ride. Ten seconds later, I pass at its level, it is an ovoid machine, of approximately 5 meters length, and 1,50 m height. No noise, but I become frightened, for I see then, next to it, two silhouettes, which resemble potato bags, without defined contours, high of 80 centimetres approximately, and which come on the side of the road, I have the vague impression that there are others of them. Then, I accelerate. A little further, I look back. The machine took off and follows me to about fifteen meters, during a few seconds, before suddenly veering and moving away."

Julien Gonzalez adds that the investigation of gendarmerie, carried out following the declarations of the witness, revealed that two other witnesses had followed at the same hour, the maneuvers of an odd machine.

The sources are indicated as C. Garreau and R. Lavier, in Face aux Extra-Terrestres, pages 136-137; Michel Figuet and Jean-Louis Ruchon, in OVNI, le premier dossier complet des rencontres rapprochées en France, pages 104-105; Jean Sider, in Le dossier 1954 et l'imposture rationaliste, page 177.

[Ref. ni1:] "THE NICAP WEBSITE":

*Oct. 1, 1954 - Mechanic Ernest Delattre, age 19, was riding home on his motor scooter between Lormaison and St-Crepin-Ibouvillers, France at eight o'clock when a brilliantly illuminated egg-shaped object landed on the left side of the road 15 meters away. He saw short, dark shapes "like potato bags" moving about the object. He sped up, saw the object, the size of a small bus, taking off while its color changed from orange to blue and then to grayish-blue. The witness fainted while telling his story. Two persons in neighboring villages independently reported observing the object. (Sources: Jacques Vallee, Passport to Magonia: A Century of Landings, p. 215; Michel Figuet & Jean-Louis Ruchon, OVNI: Le premier dossier complet des rencontres rapprochees en France, p. 104). [Note: Vallee lists the date as October 2nd but Figuet & Ruchon believe the correct date is October 1st.]

The website recorded the same case a second time with another date:

*Oct. 2, 1954 - At 8:00 p.m. in Croix d’Epine, Oise department, France Ernest Delattre, age 19, a mechanic, was riding home on his motor scooter when a brilliantly illuminated egg-shaped object landed on the left side of the road 15 meters away. He saw some short, dark shapes, “like potato bags” moving about the object. He sped up, then saw the object, which was the size of a small bus, take off. During the ascent the object's color changed from orange to blue. The object was observed by two other witnesses. As an additional note, Mr. Delattre fainted while telling his story (Sources: David F. Webb & Ted Bloecher, HUMCAT: Catalogue of Humanoid Reports, case # 1954-65 (A0267); Jacques Vallee, Passport to Magonia: A Century of Landings, case # 215).

[Ref. ta1:] "THINK ABOUT IT" WEBSITE:

Location: Croix d’Epine France

Date: October 2 1954

Time: 2000

Ernest Delattre, 19, a mechanic, was riding home on his motor scooter when an egg shaped object, brilliantly illuminated, landed on the left side of the road 15 meters away. He saw short, dark shapes, “like potato bags” moving about the object. He sped up, 7 saw the object, the size of a small bus, taking off while its color changed from orange to blue. The witness fainted while telling his story. The object was observed by 2 other witnesses.

Source: Jacques Vallee, Passport to Magonia 180

[Ref. ub1:] "UFO-DATENBANK":

This database recorded this case 7 times instead of one:

Case Nr. New case Nr. Investigator Date of observation Zip Place of observation Country of observation Hour of observation Classification Comments Identification
19541002 02.10.1954 Croix France 20.00 CE III
19541002 02.10.1954 Croix Epine France 20.00 CE III
19541002 02.10.1954 Croix Epine France 20.00 CE III
19541002 02.10.1954 Croix Epine France 20.00 CE III
19541002 02.10.1954 Croix d´ Epine France
19541002 02.10.1954 St. Crepin France 20.00 CE III
19541002 02.10.1954 St. Crepin Ibouviler France 20.00 CE III

Notes:

Jacques Vallée apparently has the date wrong and the time rounded.

Explanations:

Not looked for yet.

Keywords:

(These keywords are only to help queries and are not implying anything.)

Croix d'Epine, Oise, St Crepin-Ibouvillers, Lormaison, Ernest Delattre, object, egg-shaped, ovoid, luminous, landing, road, occupants, orange, blue, grey, night.

Sources:

[---] indicates sources which I have not yet checked.

Document history:

Version: Created/Changed by: Date: Change Description:
0.1 Patrick Gross March 27, 2003 First published.
1.0 Patrick Gross December 20, 2009 Conversion from HTML to XHTML Strict. First formal version. Additions [lc1], [ud1], [ud2], [ud3].
1.1 Patrick Gross March 6, 2010 Addition [pb1].
1.2 Patrick Gross July 7, 2010 Addition [ri1].
1.3 Patrick Gross August 13, 2013 Addition [pr1].
1.4 Patrick Gross October 4, 2014 Additions [js1], [ni1], [ta1].
1.5 Patrick Gross December 13, 2014 Additions [lg1], [jg1], [ub1].

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