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September 10, 1954, Mouriéras, Corrèze:

Reference number for this case: 10-sep-54-Mourieras. Thank you for including this reference number in any correspondence with me regarding this case.



According to the public rumor... in the Corrèze

A farmer was kissed by the passenger of a flying saucer...!!

Ussel, September 13. -- The gendarmes of the brigade of Bugeat, this morning, learning by the public rumor that a farmer of the hamlet of Mourieras, community of Bugeat (the Corrèze), Mr. Antoine Mazaud, had chatted with the passenger of a "flying saucer", went to the farmer in order to get a confirmation of this buzz.

Mr. Mazaud claimed to them that on September 10, at 08:30 p.m., returning from his fields, he had met on a path, within 1500 meters of his dwelling, an unknown individual of average size, capped of a helmet without auricle who shook hands with him and embraced him while uttering unintelligible words.

The man then went up into an apparatus in the shape of a cigar, non-enlightened, of a length from three to four meters which, taking off vertically, left in direction the west, not making more noise than a bee.

Mr. Mazaud then states that he had not wanted to speak about this story because he feared that one would laugh at him. He nevertheless entrusted the thing to his wife, who in her turn, shared it with neighborhood women, and thus the gendarmerie learned about it.

The lieutenant of the gendarmerie, commanding the squad, went on the location where no trace was found.


Mystery in BUGEAT

"No, I was not victim of an hallucination"
declares Mr. Mazeaud to us

The farmer reconstituted yesterday, in front of the investigators, his encounter with the passenger of the "flying saucer"


Bugeat. -- At 58 years, Mr. Antoine Mazeaud is a solid piece of a man, showing 1 m 82 on the measuring apparatus. Up to now, he had the serene mind of all his fellow residents to the hamlet of Mouriéras, at 1 km. 500 from Bugeat, on the road to Tarnac, clinging to this hard land that however offers in return only thin resources.

Yesterday, Mr. Mazeaud went only one time in the afternoon to see his black wheat field, accompanied in this strange visit by Mr. Bernard, police chief with the General Intelligence in Tulle, his assistant inspector Gratias, the gendarmes of Bugeat and some journalists.

Under the repeated heavy showers, the man gave again his account, calmly, clearly, pointing his finger at the precise locations and making a point to mimic the reactions which he had at the time of the events.

Police chief Bernard was disconcerted because what had just repeated, the gesture which had just reconstituted the farmer, corresponded point by point to the statement made half an hour ago and recorded by inspector Gratias.

- You can question me a hundred times, a hundred times I will answer the same things because I do not lie, Mr. Mazeaud said then...

(continued on page 2)


In the evening of September 10, Mr. Mazeaud left his field of the "Puy", located at 1 km. 800 of his place. He had just cut black wheat and engaged in the rocky path bordered of genets and ferns. It was 08:30 p.m. and the moon, though clear, allowed only a poor visibility.

- I then distinguished a man who went towards me, the farmer specifies. He walked while lowering the head.

- Of small height?

- Average.

- What happened next?

- He approached me, shook my hand, withdrew his helmet made out of metal, a sort of head protection like motorcyclists use, but deprived of a chin protection, then he gave me a hug without ever raising the head.

- Did he talk to you?

- No, he did not even make a sound. Perplexed, I dropped the fork which I carried on the shoulder and the man quickly engaged in the moor.

- Didn't you try to chase him?

By no means, I was like paralyzed; with a friend at my sides, perhaps we would have followed him... Recovered from my emotion, my glance was then attracted by an oblong mass which slowly took altitude and which shone slightly. The "thing" appeared me to pass under the power line which borders the road of Tarnac; its profile did not exceed six meters in length.


Awestruck, a little trembling, Mr. Mazeaud regained his residence. He had supper and slept normally. However, hour after hour, these events worried him; he made of his wife his confident and told his son, teacher at Bort-les-Orgues, of the scene which he had just lived, strongly rejecting to have been the subject of an hallucination and even less to have imagined...

Finally, the word went on in Bugeat and the "case" of "old Mazeaud", told in the grocery, retold in the bakery then at the butcher's to finally arrive at the gendarmerie... which forwarded it to the police force in Tulle!

Mr. Antoine Mazeaud is a hard-working, sober citizen (he does not drink alcohol) and enjoys the general esteem on all the territory of the community. He never yet read "science-fiction" stories and does not event want to hear any.

The most disconcerting, which reinforces the mystery of the "flying saucer" of Bugeat, it is that the same fact was recorded, the same night, at two hours of interval, close to Valenciennes.


who hugged a
peasant of the Correze had nothing abnormal

This time it is no more a matter of flying saucer nor of weird being seeming to belong to another world. The encounter by Mr. Mazaud, a solid 50 years old countryman of Bugeat (Corrèze) is very different. There is in his statements an indisputable note of sincerity. He does not have, not the least, the reputation of a crackpot or a prankster, and the investigators did not detect the least glitch or the least contradiction in his declarations.

The man he met on a deserted plate, September 10, around 08:30 p.m. had nothing abnormal in his getup nor in his aspect, except the rather particular shape of the helmet that he wore on the head. When he was face to face with the peasant from the Correze, he made several nods of head to greet him, shook hands with him, then gave him the accordance. He [...]

To be continued on the last page under the title: CORREZE

[Photo caption:] "And yet it's true!", says Mr. MAZAUD, farmer in the Correze, after his extraordinary report to the policemen. (A.P.)



Mars... or dream! [*]

That's the way it is, all these stories about saucers [unreadable] What if Mr. Mazaud, from Bugeat (the Corrèze) really did receive the kiss of a Martian?... Our incredulities would look pretty silly...

Moreover, there is another witness, in the person of Mr. Frugier, of Limoges, who saw, at the very same day and time when the affectionate and interplanetary encounter of Bugeat was ending, saw a red disc furrowing the sky from the East to the West. Now, Limoges is in the North-West of Bugeat, the direction taken by the mysterious apparatus according to statements made by the Correzian farmer.

This is more than just a coincidence here...

[*] the French title "Mars, ou rêve" really translates as "Mars, or dream", a not very smart play of word with the expression "Marche ou crève" which means "do what you are told, else, die."


A wave of strange "objects" is sweeping France

Dark-lovers Martians lovers play pass walls

But all those who have seen "saucers" are not dreamers

A plague of "flying saucers" and other mysterious craft is sweeping Europe, and the number of recorded testimony shows that France appears to be particularly targeted. There is no day, since weeks, where many of these events are reported from the Vendée, the Moselle and the Quiévrain to the Bidassoa.

In the Limousin, in particular, where a farmer was embraced on September 10, by a stranger; although he was peaceful, terror took hold, especially in the area of Roches (Creuse), where children no longer dare to go to school alone and where shepherdesses no longer want to keep their flocks since a dark shadow was reported hiding in the brushes. There is concern that the friendly Martian re-embarked leaving on the earth one of his companions.

In Diges (Yonne), two women saw each in her turn, a cigar land in a meadow and its pilot was leaning, perhaps on its engine. The "being" was of normal size, dressed in khaki and wearing a cap, but they were so scared that by the same reflex, they fled and locked themselves in.

Malenkov and Eisenhower shaking hands around a "saucer"

A pseudo-writer, on the contrary, delighted that these fantastic creatures come to join his philosophical ramblings, assimilates the "anti-saucerists" to troublemakers and warmongers. He writes without smiling: "These cigars and saucers could well make all of us agree. Perhaps this is why some people do not want to hear about it. Think about it! Eisenhower and Malenkov shaking hands around a saucer! What an idea!"

What to think of this new fever? Should we follow in their disdainful disapproval those who believe without verification, it is all hallucinations - sometimes collective - or should we believe with the others these are real craft originating from the human genius or more romantically coming from another world?

No doubt it is better to examine things more closely. The case now takes a too serious turn for trafficking in nonsense or admit all the news. It is time to grasp the problem and reason healthily on the sum of elements accumulated since more than seven years.

The first victim...

For it is on June 24, 1947, that the first "saucers" were reported in the manner described thousands of times since.

It was an American businessman, Kenneth Arnold, who saw that day "nine luminous discs flying in formation at high altitude" when he had taken off from Chehalis (Washington) on a personal plane. He could see that these "craft" were "flat like frying pans or saucers" before their disappearance and, if the case made little noise, the term "flying saucers" (soucoupe volante) was already launched.

It took six months before a new apparition was reported again in America, but this one was to end in tragedy, beginning to worry the public opinion. On January 7, 1948, the police in Fort Knox (Kentucky) warns the military at the Godman Airfield that "a huge fiery object, surrounded by a reddish glow" was flying in their direction. Three reservists fighter pilots were in flight, precisely at that time, on "Mustangs" propeller planes, and the tower alerted the control. Captain Mantell, leader of the squadron, immediately saw the "object" and putting gas on dove after it although his two comrades and himself had left for a flight at low altitude and were deprived of oxygen masks. The two crew members did not exceed 4,000 meters. Only Mantell went up to almost 7,000 meters before telling on the radio, breathless:

- It's frightening...

These words were the last and no one ever knew what they meant. The plane broke up in flight and the body of the unfortunate pilot was found horribly disjointed. The first reaction of Mantell's friends was naturally to think that he had been "downed" by the mysterious craft. His exclamation seemed to indicate that what he saw was awful and that monsters had fired at him.

This is the first victim - the first "martyr" - who tragically marked the true arrival of the "saucers" on earth.

An investigation commission was appointed, but its work was long and hard at a time when the high-speed compressibility phenomena were still unclear. When it put out its report on the accident, it finally explained that the pilot had climbed too high, probably in the pursuit of an atmospheric phenomenon. Deprived of oxygen, he had probably exclaimed that he was losing consciousness. The aircraft, abandoned to itself, had probably dislocated by diving at nearly the speed of the "wall of sound".

But psychosis was already on his way. What can the fairly conservative assumptions of technicians do against the taste of wonderful and the supernatural?

...and the first "hoax"

It is in any case strange to see that the appearances of "flying saucers" multiplied at once in America where 1,192 cases were reported, in waves, from 1947 to 1952. And it is no less surprising to see that, little by little parallel waves manifested themselves in France three to five weeks behind those recorded in the U.S.A.

Of course, the "pro-saucerists" interpret this pattern to their advantage: - We are part of the same humanity that the Americans and the "saucers" have no reason to despise us when visiting Earth. Their pilots wherever they come from can be as much interested in France and in the United States and if we see less it is because our territory is seventeen times smaller than that of the U.S.A.

It is certainly flattering to our national pride. But more Cartesian than sentimental "anti-saucerists", are concerned with this regular shift:

Just long enough to newspapers to inform you of the virus, they reply. After the Mantell crash anyway America was so gripped by the fear of the saucers deadly saucers that it accepted all the fables.

The most sensational story was published by one Franck Scully of Denver, who told in a weekly magazine, then in a book, how a circular machine, that came from another planet, crashed in the United States, described the autopsy by a famous practitioner of sixteen little creatures found on board and stated that metal debris from the machine, heated to 10,000 degrees, had not melted. The finally palpable "saucer" and these little men in blue linen clothes made such a noise that an investigation commission - again - joined in. Frank Scully, interrogated, had to admit the "hoax". His piece of metal melted at 637 degrees and the case ended with two convictions for fraud.

But once again, the explanation came too late. The book beautifully sold and the author won a lot of dollars.

1953 has not been a hot year for "saucers".

In France, the first known "saucer" was reported in Antibes, in August 1949, but the following came in waves, parallel, we repeat, to those in the US. There is a fever in 1950, two in 1951 and one particularly important in 1952. That year, there were eleven appearances in May, six in June, six in July, two in August and two in September, eight finally in October.

This is precisely the time when America also sees many "flying objects" and made us know its anxiety. We will see how calm then returned across the Atlantic. Here, 1953 was also quiet. The saucers disappeared from our skies until last August where a new wave started discreetly in Norway with the meeting of a helicopter by two young people who were picking blueberries.

This time Europe had exclusivity. The wave grows slowly, recalling the Loch Ness [Monster] who in the past returned in the heart of summer to fill the gaps in the news. But the Scottish snake was a prisoner of the lake while the "saucers" do not recognize borders nor countries nor the dreams and the real facts are now mingled with the disorder.

Awake hallucinations

We must reject from the first five recent stories - the most sensational alas! - just too unreliable.

In Vernon, the young witness has a strong imagination well known in the region.

In Quarouble, near Valenciennes, the gatekeeper who saw "little people" was a victim, one year ago, of a head injury and is subject, since then, to nervous disorders. Prints appear on the wood of the railway track, but may give rise to infinite interpretations.

Near Amiens, four pranksters had to admit they had wanted to make fun of their friends. In Bugeat (Corrèze), Mr. Mazaud has probably been embraced by someone but the air police firstly believes in a light aircraft that came in this deserted place at dusk, for a rendez-vous with a smuggler.

In Craintilleux finally, near St-Etienne, the giant, Hitler lookalike, double-faced (one grimacing at the front and the other, jovial, at the back) climbed in his saucer without opening the door, in the manner of wall-crossing ghosts, really seems too childishly wonderful. Witnesses, actors and writers have probably the romantic spirit that suits this kind of occurrence. And the Martian they thought they saw will at least have the advantage of providing them something for a play or a novel.

Medicine knows about these awaken hallucinations which can be experienced by completely normal people. Who did not see in the dark shadows move where there was nothing? It should be noted in this connection that virtually all reported landings of "saucers" took place at night and no one has yet seen Martians having a shape significantly different from ours in daylight.

Should we conclude that all recorded reports are the work of unbridled imaginations?

Certainly not.

Kenneth Arnold and Mantell were not dreamers. Most French witnesses aren' either.



According to the account of the "witnesses"

The average Martian measures from 1 meter to 1 meter 20 wears a motorcycle helmet and does not speak French

The most recent testimonies of the strange passengers of saucers, cigars, and various apparatuses that landed in different regions of France agree on one point: the supposed Martians are small and different from those who appeared in Portugal and measured 2 m. 50.

We summarize the witnesses report that can give an idea of what might be the "average Martian":

Mr. Marius DEWILDE, 34, metallurgist in Quarouble (Nord), saw two beings measuring one meter, with wide shoulders, but apparently without arms. They were dressed in diving suits and fitted with helmets. They pointed at the witness a ray that paralyzed him for a few seconds.

Mr. Pierre LUCAS, a baker in Loctudy (Finistère), saw an "individual" measuring 1 m 30 come out of a saucer and patting him on the shoulder uttering unintelligible sounds. His face was oval and hairy and his eyes were "the size of a raven egg".

Mr. André NARCY, 48 years old, a roadmender in Mertrud (Haute-Marne), saw a 1.20-meter-tall being disembarking from a saucer "dressed in a coat covered with hairs".

Mr. Antoine MAZAUD, from Bugeat (Corrèze), saw a "medium-sized" being wearing a motorcycle helmet.

M. Lucien BORDET, storekeeper, 9 rue Lapérouse, Paris, saw at the Bois de Boulogne three "beings" of 1 meter in height, dressed in luminous outfits and wearing helmets whose portholes concealed their eyes. One of them, who appeared to be the chief, had "six rotundities on the abdomen".





Disturbing observations, certainly, but nothing that could help to unravel the mystery

In the incredible dance that every day (or every night) saucers and cigars and apparatuses of all kinds lead in the sky of our planet, the Corrèze has not, so far, gotten the lion's share.

But I am tempted to write that if we did not get the quantity however we got the quality.

By this I mean that the few observations made in our region were made by serious people whose good faith and judgment cannot be doubted.

Mr. Mazaud of Bugeat gained a solid reputation not because he was the first to see the "flying cigar" even before the findings made in the sky of Rome, but also because his encounter with a curious person, Which one assumes to be the pilot or passenger of the mysterious machine, a character of the most "terrestrial" type that is contrary to what some write with a little too much fantasy.

Several weeks after other witnesses just as serious as M. Mazaud saw in the sky between Forgès and Saint-Chamont another flying cigar which moved a bit in the manner of an aircraft and which suddenly dove vertically.

But to these two serious observations must be added a third observed by a government employee who wishes to remain anonymous. I understand this a little.

"Saturday," he said, "I drove on the road from Egletons to Lapleau in the company of my wife, enjoying a nice morning we went to the neighboring woods to pick up mushrooms. Suddenly I saw in the sky an elongated machine, very bulging in the center, throwing metallic reflections towards the ground, the apparatus descended gradually, then disappeared suddenly behind the wooded hill in a south-easterly direction. When I reached a ridge I scanned the sky but I realized that the mysterious machine had disappeared.

My informant is formal, he did observe this extraordinary aerial ship; it was not a plane, at least not a plane of any known type. There was no [?]. It therefore belongs to the category of the flying cigars.

In the "flying saucer" category, the most serious observation seems to be that of Mr. Besse, which we did report in detail. He was able to observe the machine using binoculars. Other troubling facts were noted. But they do not have the precision of Mr. Besse's observations.

Thus in Puy-de-Noix, commune of Sainte-Fortunade on the road from Tulle to Beaulieu, several people observed a phenomenon inexplicable in their eyes.

It was Mr. Sol who gave the "alarm". At the moment when he was entering his house, from which he oversees a vast [hamlet?], he perceived at the height of a distant ridge in the direction of Falazinges a luminous ball which was moving, while changing in intensity. Mr. Sol called his son. Mr. Lherbe, a neighbor was also invited to come and observe the luminous ball, it moved irregularly, at one time it seemed that it wanted to go towards the village of Puy-de-Noix, but it returned to Falazinges. The night was dark, so we consider several explanations, an automobile headlight, the headlight of a tractor performing its nocturnal plowing. But we were obliged to consent that it could not be a headlight, since we could not see the luminous beam on the ground.

In the village of Puy-de-Noix, one still wonders about it.

Such are, among the various observations made in Correze, and have come to our knowledge, those that seem the most serious to us. They are troubling but they do not, alas, bring the final word of the enigma. -- V.A.


The big joke of the "Martians"


The Affectionate Martian

Mourieras (Correze), France, Sept. 10, 1954, 07:15 p.m.:

ANTOINE MAZAUD has just bound his last heap of oat. He thinks that the night falls already rather quickly in this season and that he was right to work late to finish before the first cold. On one kick of his heap, he adjusts the strap of his haversack and his fork on the shoulder, rejected his cap away of the forehead, and moves at great strides towards the hamlet located at approximately two kilometers.

He is a strong bloke, ole' Mazaud. Despite his fifty-eight years, one would find few like him to farm on this arid ground of the plate of Millevaches, where brooms and heather grow better than corn. It was almost night, but this sunken lane, bordered of ferns, he knows it down to every stones, he know each of its ruts. He walks faster, because he's afraid to be late for the soup. Indeed, here's the shortcut which, through the moor, leads to his farm. He engages there, walks fifty meters, and suddenly freezes still. Three steps in front of him, along a bush, a worrying silhouette shows.

Antoine Mazaud, however, does not have any reason to be afraid. Everyone has the right to walk on the plate, even at eight hours of the evening, and it would not be the first time that Mazaud meets a poacher while returning from his field. And yet the fact remains: Antoine Mazaud is afraid. Inexplicably afraid.

Something makes him think that the man is not local. He cannot distinguish his features, but his clothing is of dark color, and his head, which he holds obstinately hung low, appears enclosed in a helmet as those which the motorcyclists wear. He is of small stature, and he is rocking, without saying a word.

In his callous palm, ole' Mazaud father squeezes the handle of his fork. If the unknown wants evil to him, he will get some reaction.

A few seconds went by, then suddenly, the man shook his hand. It is an obvious sign of peace. Mazaud shakes hands with him. The unknown advances, still lowering the head. He takes Mazaud's hand, presses it firmly, and, attracting the farmer towards him, he kisses him. Awestruck, Antoine Mazaud lets him do this and has just hardly realized what has happened that, already, the unknown moves away at great steps on the moor. All the scene lasted one minute and neither one nor the other of the protagonists pronounced a single word.

Still under the shock of the surprise, Antoine automatically resumes his walk.

- I feared another meeting of this sort, which perhaps would have been less peaceful, he would later say.

But hardly had he crossed twenty meters, when he sees "the Thing", or rather he hears a light rustle which makes him turn over. At approximately fifty of meters from him, an apparatus of elongated shape, slightly shining, measuring approximately from four to five meters length, rises gently from the ground and takes altitude little by little.

After having passed under the power line which borders the road of Tarnac, "the Thing" disappears in the night. Antoine Mazaud, from Mouriéras (Corrèze), will become the man in the news.

He tells the affair to his wife, initially, then to his son who is a teacher in Bort-les-Orgues. Soon, all the village is well-informed and, little by little, the case of the ole' Mazaud comes into the ears of the mobile brigade of Tulle, which dispatches police chief Bernard on the premises, from the General Intelligence. To him as with the others, Antoine Mazaud can only repeat what he said: The man... the kiss... the Thing...

On the spot, the investigators discover nothing. No landing trace, no clue. Before to have even started, the investigation is blocked at the declarations of Antoine Mazaud. The mystery remains whole.

Such is the manner in which the adventure of Mr. Mazaud was reported. This story seemed surprising enough to justify the impassioned interest of the public and to make those which regard the flying saucers as interplanetary apparatus utter clamours of triumph.

A local investigation revealed certain rather disturbing details all the same.

"THE BEING WHICH I EMBRACED WAS OF SMALL SIZE," said Antoine Mazaud and he added later "HE EMBRACED ME WITHOUT RAISING THE HEAD." Antoine Mazaud has a size of 1 m 80 approximately, it appears rather difficult that an individual of small size embraces him without raising the head.

DARKNESS PREVENTED TO DESCRIBE FACIAL FEATURES OF THE UNKNOWN, tells Antoine Mazaud. That however did not prevent him from distinguishing certain clothing details such as the motorcyclist helmet.

THE APPARATUS WENT UNDER A POWER LINE, affirms Mr. Mazaud. Close to the place where he was and at the hour when the event occurred, it would have been necessary to have the hawk's sight to notice this detail with certainty.

Lastly, it seems that certain precise details came to be grafted thereafter onto the account by the witness. Is this so astonishing, when a flock of people overpowered Mr. Mazaud with questions and when he has to repeat his story more than one hundred times?

Who subjected Antoine Mazaud to a questionnaire bearing on absolutely irrefutable facts? Who tried to reduce back his adventure to data which he would have judged certain himself?

The mystery is perhaps not as impenetrable as it appears, but Saint-Thomas would perhaps not be too much to clear it up.



France In Grip Of Flying Saucer Fever

From June GODDARD In Paris

FRANCE, the land of logic, is in the full grip of the fever of flying saucers and of little men in space helmets, who make friendly, if unintelligible, advances to startled peasants, or nail them to the spot with a hypnotic "green ray."

For the past 10 days there have been unnumerable flying saucer reports from peasants, doctors, milkmen, butchers, farmers, housewives, gendarmes, teachers, from the Channel coast to the Mediterranean, from the Pyrenees to the Ardennes, from Brittany to Alsace.

According to all these witnesses, the sky over France is alight with sparkling yellow "saucers," bluish globes, "flying cigars," (Once as dramatically reported from Mulhouse in Alsace, surrounded by "12 little cheroots"), plain aluminum "saucers," luminous "cigars," 10 "saucers" which seemed to perform a sort of ballet in the sky, and sometimes just plain "mysterious machines."

Unlike earlier flying saucers, those reported hovering over France fly low, sometimes at about 600 ft, and do not flash across the sky, but remain in view for as long as 15 minutes, or remain apparently immobile.

They variously spit flames, form luminous curtains of light, change color, land and take off vertically without a sound.

MANY French scientists, hitherto skeptical on the flying saucer question, are reported to be somewhat shaken by the multiplicity of reports, and by the fact that some are group observations, or individual reports which tally with others received from adjacent regions.

On the subject of little men or Martians, they reiterate that astronomers have never made any observations which could indicate a high form of life on Mars.

They point out that Mars is a thousand million years older than the earth, and that, if life did once exist there, it probably disappeared in the pink icy deserts which appear now to abound on the planet.

The protagonists of the flying saucers and the little men from Mars have been greatly encouraged by an article in the serious journal, "Forces Aériennes Françaises" (French Air Forces) written by a young aeronautical engineer, Lieut. J. Plantier, and approved by an engineer-in-chief of the Air Ministry.

Lieut. Plantier does not take sides, but merely demonstrates theoretically and by mathematical study that all the phenomenal behavior attributed to flying saucers is perfectly explicable if such machines were using cosmic ray energy,

Lieut. Plantier shows that the reports that flying saucers remain motionless in the sky, accelerate from immobility to 10,000 m.p.h. in a few seconds without any noise, and that living beings can fly in them without being harmed by the acceleration, are completely logical if it is admitted that energy of cosmic rays has been harnessed and that machines can fly at the speed of light.

IRRESPECTIVE of the views of scientists, however, French men and women continue to report daily appearances of saucers and cigars and their encounters with the space men.

First reaction of the honest French citizen in the face of any unusual happening or danger - including, it seems, phenomena from outer space - is to inform the gendarmes.

Accordingly, in villages and towns, bold gendarmes have been "alerted" as the French Press has it, and have been kept busy checking reports and examining alleged flying saucer landing areas for "traces."

Two gendarmes at Chateauroux in Central France themselves saw three luminous green flying objects.

Their police training immediately asserted itself, and they stopped a motor car driver and a cyclist so that they too could look and bear witness. Then the gendarmes made out a full report.

The only tangible evidence to date of a landing is that produced by Mr. Marius Dewilde, a 28-year-old metal worker in the North near Valenciennes.

M. Dewilde, a young man with a hairline moustache, a long - and it must be admitted, humorous - face, said he first saw the "Martians" from his garden near the railway line.

"Two little beings, not more than three feet high," he reported, "each wearing a sort of diving suit with metal helmet, were standing near a 'flying cigar,' which had landed on the railway sleepers."

M. Dewilde had no chance to shake hands or welcome the visitors in the name of the Fourth Republic for, as soon as they saw him, they hypnotized him with a "green ray" while they leapt into their machine which, of course, took off vertically in a thick cloud of smoke without making a sound.

Next day the gendarmes "alerted" at once by M. Dewilde and two inspectors of the Air Force police, found a series of strange regular marks on the railway sleepers, which could have been caused by the "saucer" in landing.

MOST intimate contact with the space men was reported by M. Antoine Mazaud, a farmer, aged 58, with a bushy grey moustache, who lives near Limoges in the Massif central plateau of France.

M. Mazaud alleges that a "Martian" about three feet high emerged from a "flying cigar" and began to talk in an unintelligible tongue. When he realized that M. Mazaud could not understand him, he kissed the farmer on the cheek.

M. Mazaud's argumentative fellow-countrymen, questioning this strange story, immediately wanted to know why a creature from another world should adopt the habit - not even universal on earth, they pointed - of kissing.

"It is surprising that he did not pin a medal on your chest and kiss you on both cheeks," they scoffed.

In view of this unsympathetic response to M. Mazaud's story, it is not surprising, therefore, that M. Yves David, a farmer of Chatellerault, concealed for some days the fact that he had been touched on the arm by a "space man" before being momentarily hypnotized by the "green ray" like M. Dewilde.

M. David was afraid of being laughed at, he said, but eventually asked a friend if anyone else had seen the space man. The friend spread the news and, of course, told the gendarmes.

Two women in the Yonne department gave independent reports of having seen a strange machine in a clearing with a pilot standing next to it. Neither stayed to investigate, however.

DAILY the stories continue. No Parisians have yet reported an encounter with a "Martian," altough, as the wits point out, you would expect them to land on the "Champs de Mars" ("Field of Mars"), the esplanade in the front of the military school.

Cartoonists are fully exploiting the "Martian" and flying saucer season. One, in true Gallic vein, has drawn the classic wronged husband who returns home unexpectedly. He has thrown open the cupboard door to reveal a strange little figure in a spaceman's suit and helmet, and is saying to his guilty wife, cowering in bed: "And that, I suppose, you'll tell me, is a Martian."

Most celebrated flying saucer "spotter" to date in Paris is film star Michele Morgan, who reported seeing one near the Eiffel tower at about 10 p.m.

When Mademoiselle Morgan later complained of the flood of telephone calls from fans and friends who wanted to hear further details, her mother made the dry and essentially French comment:

"You lost a good opportunity that night to hold your tongue."




Flying saucer stories originated in the United States, spread to Canada, and have now burst out in France. The French saucer tales have a gallic quality that adds to their fascination.

For instance, a French farmer claims that as he was walking along a lonely road, a creature came up to him, caressed his arm, and made unintelligible noises. Then it moved off to a waiting saucer, says the farmer, which he could no see because he was blinded and temporarily paralyzed by a green ray directed at him. (Only in France would a creature from outer space caress a man who chanced upon him on a lonely road.)

Then a former artillery officer in France reported he saw a dark-gray object hovering over some mountains at about 6.000 feet. As he stopped his car to look, the mass suddenly "shot away like lightning and disappeared." The element of romance is missing here, but not that of wonder.

It's impossible to say that flying saucers don't exist; certainly stories about them appear to be universal. But so, at one time, did stories of witches and fairies come from all over the world. What is universal today is the jitters. It may be these, along with the fantastic devices assembled by science, that cause people to see things in the sky which exist only in their imagination.


In France, Rumors Are Flying...
Or Maybe They Are Saucers

PARIS. -- Readers of the classical ad columns of the Brest Telegramme blinked recently at the following notice:


Offer of 10 million francs (1000000) to anyone who brings me a live inhabitant of planet Mars. Contact PRE in LOCRONAN (Finistère).

It may that that Mr. Pre has his tongue in his cheek and a good more than 10 million francs in his pockets. But considering what is going on in Europe these says you never know...

Cedric Allingham, if his interest has been more mercenary than scientific, might have warmed up. Mr Allingham is a [unreadable]. He is also a professional ornithologist and an amateur astronomer. His big chance came last February 18, about 3:30 p.m. on his course of a stroll between [... unreadable]

[(Allingham claimed he met Venusians...] chances of earning Mr. Pre's reward, he has no corner on the Martian market. Within recent weeks, European newspapers have been flooded with scores of hardly less intriguing reports:

On the night of September 10, near Quarouble in Northern France, an oblong machine about 10 feet long landed on a railroad track a few yards from the house of farmer Marius Dewilde. Two small man-like creatures emerged, dressed in costumes that looked like divers' suits. As Mr. Dewilde walked towards the machine, he was paralyzed by a green light. By the time he recovered, the machine was high in the sky. Further investigations showed symmetrical scrapes on the wooden railroad ties, suggesting that the object had rested on a tripod undercarriage.

The same evening a farmer named Antoine Mazaud of the Plateau of Millevache in Southern France turned in a similar report to the local authorities. Walking home, Mr. Mazaud had found himself suddenly face to face with a small, mysterious stranger, wearing something that looked like a crash helmet. Farmer Mazaud prudently extended his pitchfork. The stranger, on the contrary, held out his hands in a gesture of friendship, walked up, uttered a few sounds, and kissed Mr. Mazaud on the cheek. Before the farmer could recover his poise, the amiable intruder has climbed the roadside hedge and entered a cigar-shaped contraption which took off with a faint buzzing sound.

On September 24 at 10 a.m. in the Gardunha Mountains near the Spanish border, three Portuguese peasants were startled by a fast flying sphere which landed in a field 200 yards from them. This time, two tall creatures emerged in shiny metallic outfits and started collecting grass and stones in a brightly polished box. Spotting the peasants, they strolled over and invited the men by gestures to climb into their machines, where moving shadows could be seen behind the semitransparent center section. When the offer was declined, the strangers disappeared through a hatch. A few seconds later, the sphere took off vertically and rapidly disappeared. [In Portugal, a hoax. Case file here.]

"Flying Mushroom"

On September 30 at 5:10 p.m. Bernard Goujon and Armand Pichet were working on the road between Maisoncelles and Meaux when a "flying mushroom" eight feet wide settled gracefully nearby. Mr. Pichet, from a vantage point in the roadside ditch, urged Mr. Goujon to "run over and have a look." According to Mr. Goujon's report to the gendarmes, the mushroom seemed to be made out of aluminum and rested on three crutches. It took off as he approached "spiraling like an autumn leaf" and was lost in the clouds. Next morning the

[Ref. pm1:] PARIS MATCH:

In a four pages general article on the flying saucers, the famous Paris-Match magazine counts Antoine Mazaud as one of the three sole people, with Aasta Solvag and Marius Dewilde, "which made a personal contact with the passengers of the flying saucers" on the old continent. The article denounces the American swindle of the hoaxed saucer fragments of Frank Scully and gives a clearly dubitative account of the Adamski claims.

The magazine indicates that these passengers of flying saucers kissed Mr. Mazaud, adding that according to his own words, Mr. Mazaud felt against his cheek a hot flesh "like that of a guy from my countryside."

[Ref. ra1:] RADAR:

The magazine said that Antoine Mazaud, a peaceful farmer of Bugeat, on the Millevaches plateau in Limousin, was returning home with his spading fork over his shoulder. On the path leading to his farm, a stranger advanced toward him. On his head was a helmet, rather like those worn by prudent motorcyclists, but earless. This personage, who was squat and of good-natured appearance, came up to Antoine and held out to him a large palm ending in five very human fingers. Then he left the path. Antoine followed him with his eyes and saw a craft like a fat cigar about 3 meters long. The stranger entered it and took off vertically "with no more noise than a "bee would make."



Men Who See Saucers May Be In Their Cups

LYON, FRANCE, -- (Reuters) -- France's flying saucer circus continued to rouse interest around the country Wednesday as more eyewitnesses accounts of "saucers", "plates" and other whizzing celestial objects kept pouring in.

Now a farmer says a creature came up to him on a lonely road, caressed his arm and burbled unintelligible noises at him. Then it went off towards its "saucer", which the farmer could not describe because a green ray temporarily paralyzed him.


Did a flying saucer land in the Yonne?

The witnesses - two women - are formal and traces have been identified

Auxerre (of our C.P.). - Friday morning Mrs. widow Geoffroy, living in the hamlet of Les Jolivets, commune of Dizes [sic] (Yonne), went to join the washhouse where she usually works, at the place "En Bécard", when her attention was attracted by a bizarre machine resting on the left of a clearing.

It was a device like a "flying saucer", as the Press had described it for a few weeks.

The cigar (seen in profile) was elongated, six or six feet in diameter, and was brown in color with a bulge in its upper central part. Beside, a man of average height was looking at Mme Geoffroy, who became frightened and did not return until two hours later.

Fortunately, another person, Miss Gisèle Fin, who kept her goats on the other side of the wood, was warned of this unusual presence by the barking of her dogs. She saw, about thirty yards away, a crouching man, apparently of normal height, who was busy working around a machine.

Continued on page 6, under the title

This device is described in the same way as Mrs. Geoffroy did.

Miss Fin led her dogs cautiously by the path in the direction of the road to better look while being safe. So she looked away from the craft for three or four minutes. When she wanted to look again, she saw nothing. Without noise, the craft had disappeared.

On the dew, in the place where it had been seen, there were traces of dried grass, at a distance of 80 centimeters, attesting that the saucer, mounted on skates - "I clearly saw them," said Miss Fin - did really land there.

Other people passing a few moments later were able to check it out.

The declarations of the Leaunais correspond to those given by a Bugeat peasant, who traded an identical craft and person on the plateau of Millevaches, in Limousin.

A month ago, a resident of Dizes, a hamlet of Varennes, Mrs. Lucas, had seen a hovering craft; which suddenly skyrocketed vertically. It was a superb moonlight. Madame Lucas dared not say anything, lest she would be mocked.

Does the region of Dizes, because of the presence of ocher piles extracted from the wells of Sully, attract, by its clear spots, the attention of the observers in the interplanetary vessels?


This farmer of the Corrèze Mr. Mazaud is said to have been fondly kissed by a "Martian" who came down of a flying "Cigar" of 6 meters in length.



Men From Mars All Over

Flying Saucer Reports Sweep France

By CROSBY S. Noyes

PARIS (NANA) -- Readers of the classified-ad columns of the Brest Telegram blinked recently at the following notice:

Reward - Offer of 10 millions francs ($28.000) to anyone who brings me a live inhabitant of the planet Mars. Contact Pre at Locronan (Finistere).

It may be that M. Pre has his tongue in his cheek and a good deal less than 10,00,000 francs in his pocket. But considering what is going on in Europe these days, you never know...

Cedric Allingham, in his interest had been more mercenary cleaned up. Allingham is a Scots. He is also a professional ornithologist and an amateur astronomer. His big chance came last Feb. 18, about 3:30 p.m., in the course of a stroll between Lossiemouth and Buckle in Scotland. The flying saucer landed on the heath only a few yards away.

"A magnificent machine," Allingham reported later. "About 50 feet wide and 20 feet high. Made of metal, shinier than aluminum. As I walked over, a trap in the lower part opened and a man jumped out gracefully. I waved at him and he waved back. Then we just sort of stared at each other for a while.

"We both looked pretty much alike - about 5 feet 8 inches, around the same age (32), short, dark hair. Clothes, of course, were quite different. He had on a sort of tunic covering him completely to the neck, leaving only his hands free. One thing especially caught my attention: his nose, or rather two small tubes which emerged from his nostrils, connected by a metal bar no thicker than a match.

- * -

THINKING FAST, Allingham decided that his responsibility both as a scientist and an earthling required him to take the conversation initiative. By way of an obvious opening gambit, he pointed a questioning finger toward the sky.

"The man nodded affirmatively and smiled," Allingham related. "He had a charming smile. I said 'Mars' and he repeated 'Mars' in a voice which can't be described but could be compared to the sound of spring water."

After this promising beginning, the conversation lagged. Further questions produced little in the way of new information about life on Mars or the working of flying saucers. It was established, however, that the Martians had also made trips to Venus and had landed on the moon. Finally, the Martian, who showed an astonishing lack of curiosity about Allingham, decided it was time to leave.

- * -

BEFORE GOING, however, he agreed to a few snapshots of himself and his machine. Unfortunately, for all his knowledge of bird lore, astronomy and interplanetary small talk, Mr. Allingham turned out to be no great shakes as a photographer. His developed film showed only the blurred but surprisingly human-looking back of the retreating space traveler. The picture of the saucer has all the definition of a badly poached egg.

Although Allingham has written a book about his experience and stood the best chance of earning Mr. Pre's reward, he has no corner on the Martian market. Within recent weeks, European newspapers have been flooded with scores of hardly less intriguing reports.

On the night of Sept. 10, near Quarouble in northern France, an oblong machine about 10 feet long landed on a railroad track a few yards from the house of a farmer Marius Dewilde. Two small man-like creatures emerged, dressed in costumes that looked like divers' suits. As M. Dewilde walked toward the machine, he was paralyzed by a green light. By the time he recovered, the machine was high in the sky. Further investigation showed symmetrical scrapes on the wooden railroad ties, suggesting that the object had rested on a tripod undercarriage.

The same evening a farmer named Antoine Mazaud of the plateau of Millevaches in southern France turned in a similar report to the local authorities. Walking home, Mazaud had found himself suddenly face to face with a small, mysterious stranger, wearing something that looked like a crash helmet. Farmer Mazaud prudently extended his pitchfork. The stranger, on the contrary, held out his hand in a gesture of friendship, walked up, uttered a few sounds and kissed Mazaud on the cheek. Before the farmer could recover his poise, the amiable intruder had climbed the roadside hedge and entered a cigar-shaped contraption which took off with a faint buzzing sound.

- * -

ON SEPT. 24 at 10 a.m. in the Gardunha mountains near the Spanish border, three Portuguese peasants were startled by a fast-flying sphere which landed in a field 200 yards from them. This time, two tall creatures emerged in shiny metallic outfits and started collecting grass and stones in a brightly polished box. Spotting the peasants, they strolled over and invited the men by gestures to climb into their machine, where moving shadows could be seen behind the semitransparent center section. When the offer was declined, the strangers disappeared through a hatch. A few seconds later, the sphere took off vertically and rapidly disappeared.

On Oct. 8 at 7:15 a.m., a roadmender named Gustave Narcy was bicycling to work near Wassy, a Paris suburb, when he noticed an unusual looking creature climbing out of a 30-foot cigar. Narcy's description was very precise. The stranger was 3 feet 11 inches tall. His body was covered with hair. He was wearing a large orange corset and a helmet made of plush. A moment of mutual staring ensued after which Narcy said good-morning. The stranger apparently unreassured, scrambled back into his fuselage and flew away. An investigation on the spot revealed skid-marks on the grass and a strange milky substance.

- * -

REPORTS LIKE these are run-of-the mill, chosen at random from literally gundreds of similar incidents that have been brought to the public attention within the last two weeks. The stories have an interesting mixture of variety and consistency. The flying whatnots are always luminous by day or night. They are described as saucers, mushrooms, cigars, barrels, bananas, spheres and chamber pots. The pilots vary in size as well as wardrobe, ranging from dwarfs to giants. In all cases, the visitors have been pictured as mannerly but timid. In several cases the use of harmless weapons has been reported - in several others the intruders have shown an interest in collecting vegetable and mineral specimen near at hand.

The scientists have come up with plenty of explanations. A report from Russia that the past summer has been unusually hot on Mars has led to the journalistic deduction that the Martians are coming over for a breath of fresh air. The summer in western Europe has been anything but hot. In Africa, the vice president of the astronomic association of Nairobi suggests that Mars is conducting a geographic survey of the earth concentrated presently on Europe and Africa. The politicians are also getting nto the act: in France, Jean Nocher, Gaullist deputy from the Loire district, has formally demanded an investigation by the Secretary for Air.

All of which, probably, proves very little. Except that people in Europe today have more serious things to worry about than rearming the Germans. And that if M. Pre of Locronan is daft, he has, at least, plenty of company.

[Ref. ci1] CIA:


SUBJET: Military - Unidentified flying objects  
HOW PUBLISHED: Dail[y] newspaper   DATE DIST.: 29 oct 1954
DATE PUBLISHED: 31 Jul - 20 Sep 1954  
[Blackened out] [Blackened out]   THIS IS UNEVALUATED INFORMATION
SOURCE: As indicated  

31 JULY - 20 SEPTEMBER 1954


[... (Reports from other countries) ...]


[... (Previous reports)]


(The following is additional information on reports of two cases cited in the FBIS [CIA reports such as this one] roundup of 14 September 1954)

Two of the alleged landings (on 10 September) in France of "flying saucers" are considered by the local air police to have been nothing more than the landing of planes used in smuggling. Furthermore, in one case, the farmer in Correze Department stated that the pilot uttered unintelligible words; but the farmer was certainly no polyglot and could easily have been fooled. In the other case, in Valenciennes Departement, the witness may have been sincere, but it should be noted that he had a cranial traumatism one year ago and several nervous disturbances since. It is true, however, that in the latter case, the air police found four unusual marks on the railroad ties near the spot indicated by the witness, marks that could have been made by the tools of railroad workers.

[... (Next reports)]

Note: the "other case" is the Marius Dewilde case, refer to the corresponding file for September 10 in Quarouble, Nord.

[Ref. hw1:] HAROLD T. WILKINS:

The author indicates that a few days after the Quarouble report, came a report from Clermont Ferrand, in the lonely mountain region of the Auvergne: Antoine Mazaud, walking in the dusk along a lonely footpath towards a hamlet called Ussel had met a being in a helmet, four feet six inches tall, who shook hands with him, and kissed him on both cheeks.

That being spoke a strange tongue, then turned and jumped into a 12 feet long cigar-shaped object; which took off vertically into the sky, and vanished west at great speed.

Mazaud notified the police, who only shook their heads and told the keeper of the local bistro whose customers laughed at Mazaud; which did not please him.

The author indicates further in his book that in France in 1954, at Bugeat, a man alleged that normal-looking beings or a normal-looking being approached, kissed him, jabbered unintelligibly, then got into cigar-shaped saucers ten feet long, and took off.

[Ref. gb1] GRAY BARKER:

Dewilde's story was somewhat confirmed, and a strictly Freudian note was injected, when, on the same evening, a farmer names Antoin Mazaud, of the Plateau of Millevaches in southern France, told a similar tale.

He was walking home when he ran smack into a little guy wearing what he thought was a crash helmet. Although the farmer was not greatly frightened, he decided to play it safe and held up his pitchfork in a menacing manner.

But the small stranger wasn't offended: he held out his hand in a gesture of friendship, and when Mazaud put down his pitchfork the creature walked up, said a few unintelligible words and kissed him on the cheek.

Before Mazaud could recover his poise the saucerian climbed over a roadside hedge, hopped into a cigar-shaped contraption and zoomed away with a buzzing sound.

[Ref. mt1:] MARC THIROUIN:

Some examples of "rejections"

The Mazaud case -- One remembers the adventure occurred to this farmer of Corrèze who claimed he had been kissed by a F.S. passenger, on Sept. 10, 1954. The questioning of Mr. Mauzaud multiplied so much that at the end, exhausted, he denied his claims and admitted that be had not been kissed. We were resting on this statement, when our correspondent, Mr. Avignon made?a counter-investigation and received the witness's written and signed confirmation of his first version.

[Ref. jg1:] JIMMY GUIEU:

Jimmy Guieu reports that on September 10, 1954, at 08:30 P.M., near the hamlet of Mouriéras in the département of Corrèze, on the Millevache mesa, Mr. Antoine Mazeau, a farmer of age 50, returned home after having worked in the field.

On a path, at 1500 meters of his home, he met an unknown individual, of normal size, capped of a helmet similar to those used by motorcyclists but without earcovers. The individual was coming towards him.

Mr. Mazaud and the individual surprised each other when they noticed their respective presences, and Mr. Mazaud started a gesture of defense with the fork which he carried on the shoulder, while the individual then advanced towards him smiling, tended hands, to convince him of his good intentions. The individual spoke, but Mr. Mazaud did not understand what he said. The individual took the hands of Mr. Mazaud in his and "tightened them warm-heartedly."

Mr. Mazaud had not yet recovered from his surprise, when the individual crossed the slope which bordered the path and jumped in an odd machine which had the shape of a large metal cylinder of 3 to 4 meters length. The apparatus, non-enlightened, took off vertically, emitting a curious buzz similar to that of a beehive and disappeared in the direction of the West.

Jimmy Guieu adds that Mr. Mazaud's statements were distorted by some, who wrote that he was kissed by the individual, while actually the individual only shook hands with Mr. Mazaud as a manifestation of friendship.

Jimmy Guieu indicates that Mr. Mazaud was lengthily interrogated by the Lieutenant of Gendarmerie (Police attached to the Army) of Ussel and formally maintained his declarations, but deplored the fuss which had been made about his adventure. The Gendarmerie had been alerted 5 days after the facts, went to the site and did not find traces of the landing at the site.

Jimmy Guieu finally adds that sincerity of Mr. Mazaud was obvious, and the absence of contradictions in his report convinced the investigators of the accuracy of his account, and that Mr. Mazaud was honorably known and had the reputation neither of a joker nor of a visionary.

[Ref. am1:] AIME MICHEL:

Aimé Michel offers a lively account of the events, whose substance is what follows. He notes that in this little populated area, everyone knows everyone and an "unknown" is a strangeness per se.

On September 10, 1954, Antoine Mazaud, a robust country man in his fifties, calms and well balanced, has just spent the afternoon working in his oats field. At 08:30 P.M., whereas the night was falling, he put his fork at his shoulder and takes the sunken lane overhung by the Monneidières mounds and which curves between two hedges and leads to his house of the hamlet of Mouriéras, close to Bugeat, at 1.5 kilometer off the place where he worked.

At the level of a small wood, he puts down his fork to smoke a cigarette, during one or two minutes, then picks up his fork again and walks away. Michel provide Mr. Mazaud's wording:

"As soon as I had made a few steps, in the starting darkness, I came face to face with an unknown "character" dressed in an odd way. Of average size, the "character" had a sort of helmet without earcovers, a little like motorcyclists use. My first reflex was to hand my fork. I was frozen with fear." The other "was also motionless. Suddenly, quite gently, he advanced towards me, making a sort of gestures with his arm above his head. I believed to understand that he wanted to calm me down, perhaps to greet me, or to express his friendship to me. His other arm was directed at me, but I did not have the impression of a threat, on the contrary. I didn't know what to do. After one moment of panic, when I wondered with what I was dealing with, I thought that it was some crackpot in disguise. As he continued to advance slowly towards me making odd gestures, I deduced from it that he did not intend to attack me. He was in front of me. Then, still holding my fork in my right hand, I advanced my left hand towards him, hesitantly. He grabbed it and shoot hand very extremely tightly, then suddenly, grabbed me against him, attracting my head against its helmet. I was amazed. All that had happened in complete silence. Coming out of my stupor, I dared tell him a good evening. He did not say anything, passed in front of me and moved away a few meters in the thick shade of wood. It seemed to me that he went down on his knees. A few seconds afterwards, I heard a light whistle like a buzz of a bee and I saw a dark type of apparatus rise between the branches towards the sky, it appeared me to have the shape of a reinflated cigar on a side and a length of three or four meters. It passed under high voltage power lines and disappeared in the sky towards the West for Limoges. It is at this time that I began to gather my senses. I sprang in the direction where he had disappeared, but it was too late, obviously."

At 08:50 p.m., Antoine Mazaud arrives at his place. His wife questions it on what occurred, because he is pale and its hands are shaking. Pressed by his wife, he agrees to tell her what happened, but asks that she does not to speak about it with others, by fear of the scoffing. Mrs. Mazaud nevertheless told tell all the story to her neighbor, under promise that it will not be repeated, but is was, and as of the following day, everyone in the area was well-informed.

On October 12, the lieutenant of the Gendarmerie of Ussel opens his investigation and questions Mazaud, initially annoyed and reticent, but ending up telling the events. On the location of the encounter, the gendarmes find no trace, no clue. Michel notes that two days had passed and that it had rained a lot.

The gendarmes have been unable to prove that Mazaud lied, and have been also unable to prove that he told the truth. They checked the man's reputation, it was excellent, Mazaud being described as a silent man, a hard worker, balanced and deprived of any imagination. Michel provides an extract of an article by a journalist from "Combat" who came to investigate:

"In his statements, there is an indisputable note of sincerity. He does not have, not the least of it, the reputation of an illuminated prankster, and the investigators did find the least error or the least contradiction in his declarations."

Michel notes that the chief of the Military Intelligence in Tulle Information said that he was "struck as everyone by the seriousness of this involuntary witness of this strange phenomenon."

Michel indicates that the authorities would undoubtedly have filed the case away as cock-and-bull story, if it had not appeared during the investigation that the very same evening, a few moment after Mr. Mazaud saw the machine leaving for Limoges, towards the West, that the inhabitants of Limoges actually saw an object darting in the sky, coming from the East and going Westward, described as a reddish disc which let escape a bluish trail. These testimonies were collected by the police force before the meeting of Mr. Mazaud was even known of the inhabitants of Limoges. Michel notes amongst other the testimony of Mr. George Frugier, thirty years old, who reported his observation as of the evening of September 10, having noted the time with certainty: a few moments after 20:30. Michel adds that of Mr. Frugier's family did not take his testimony with serious before September 14, date at which the newspapers mentioned Mr. Mazaud's sighting.

Short discussion on the report by Aimé Michel

Michel adds several precise details. Thus, it seems that Mr. Mazaud regretted "not having killed" the unknown individual" using his fork "to know what he was." For Michel, this is a firm indication that Mr. Mazaud knew the individual was not human. But the nature of the unknown being, if one sticks to the account of Mazaud given by Michel, is human: nothing suggests the contrary.

To add to the difficulty, Michel notes that at the time, Mazaud did not thought that his visitor could be an extraterrestrial being, because the notion of "Martians" and "flying saucers" were unknown to him, and it was thereafter, with the suggestions of the press amongst other, that he ended up naming his visitor: "my Martian."

Lastly, Aimé Michel notes with accuracy that Mr. Mazaud does not have anything of the "contactee" of the "Adamski type" in the sense that nothing enabled to foresee in his entourage that he was going to meet "a Martian", and that following its meeting, Mazaud was unchanged, in particular he did not gather any worshippers. He met a "Martian," and it stops right there.


Michel Carrouges indicates that the Mazaud observation is one of the cases in which the saucer pilot touched the hand or shoulder of the witness.


116 -001.92600 45.61650 10 09 1954 20 30 105 MOURIERAS-CORREZE F 0111 2C 038


The authors indicate that at Mourieras, France on September 10, 1954, a farmer returning to the town at nightfall saw a man of average height, wearing a helmet, who made friendly gestures and entered the brush, and after that a cigar-shaped object estimated to be 16 feet in length, took off.


The author indicates that on September 10, 1954, a farmer who returned from Mouriéras at night fall suddenly came face to face with a helmeted being of average size who made friendly gestures to him, then returned, entered a bush, and penetrated in an object in the shape of a cigar of approximately 4 meters length which flew away.


The authors indicate that their information for the case of Mourieras, commune of Bugeat, the Corrèze, of September 10, 1954, towards 08:30 p.m., has its source in newspapers clipping and their personal files.

They indicate that in this "classic case", farmer Antoine Mazaud, going back from his work in the fields, met a strange being of average size capped of a kind of motorcyclist helmet. There was reciprocal surprise, and the farmer told:

"My first reflex was to immediately use my fork, which I strongly held in my right hand, for I was not reassured at all. I was frozen on the spot by the fear. Then, all gently, he advanced towards me, while making salamalecs and holding out a hand to me. When he was at my level, I shook his left hand; which he squeezed very strongly. Then, pulling me in a fast gesture, he kissed me on the two cheeks. I remained dumbfounded about it. He had not said a word. Getting bolder I told him: "Good evening!" He answered nothing, passed in front of me, and moved away a few meters. In the thick shade of the wood, it seemed to to me that he went down on his knees. I then heard a gentle whistling sound. Then a kind of cigar, larger at the front than at the back, rose towards the sky, almost with vertically. It passed under the high voltage power lines and disappeared to the direction of Limoges."

The authors indicate that the investigation opened by the gendarmerie of Ussel made it possible to establish that this evening of September 10, 1954, little after 08:30 p.m., residents of Limoges had seen in the sky, flying from West to East, a reddish disc which let escape a bluish trail. The report of these witnesses had been collected before Antoine Mazaud's adventure was published in the press.


September 10, 1954, 08:30 P.M. Mouriéras (France).

A farmer, Mr. Mazaud was walking home when he was suddenly confronted with a helmeted being of average height who made friendly gestures, then went back into the brush, entered a cigar-shaped object about 4 m long, which took off toward Limoges. A few minutes later witnesses in Limoges reported a disk-shaped, red object leaving a bluish trail. (7; M 40)

Antoine Mazaud, in 1954.


September the 10th, 1954 was marked by two very strange affairs. The first takes place at 08:50 p.m. with Antoine Mazaud, fifty years old, who returns to his farm in Mouriéras (Corrèze). In the emerging darkness, he is face to face with an unknown being, of normal size, abnormally dressed, and wearing on the head without a helmet without earmuffs. The character takes his hand and pulls it against his helmet. No words are pronounced. Then he walks away. Seconds later Mr Mazaud hears like the buzzing of bees, and sees a kind of dark craft, 3 to 4 m long, rise.

[Ref. rb1:] RICHARD BOYLAN, PhD:

Richard Boylan is an American ufologist. In an article titled "Alien races: varied types and appearances" for the MUFON journal in April 2000, he reproduced Vallée's Magonia summary with no changes.

On September 10, 1954 in Mouriéras, France, a farmer, Mr. Mazaud was walking home when he was suddenly confronted with a helmeted being of average height who made friendly gestures, then went back into the brush, entered a cigar-shaped object about 4 m long, which took off toward Limoges. A few minutes' later witnesses in Limoges reported a disk-shaped, red object leaving a bluish trail.


34. Encounter at Mourieras (Correze), September 10, by Antoine Mazuad [sic]: Paris Combat, September 14; Samedi-Soir, October 14; Radar Magazine, September 26; Crosby S. Noyes, op. cit.; Aime Michel, op. cit., pp. 40-44.


The two French ufologists Gilbert Cornu and Henri Chaloupek indicate that on September 19, 1954, Mr. Mazaud, a farmer of Corrèze returned to his farm shortly before 10:00 P.M., and had a face to face encounter with an unknown dressed in an unusual way and capped with a helmet without earcovers. In silence, the unknown took the hand of Mr. Mazaud and attracted him against his helmet and then went away. A few meters farther, the unknown kneeled. A few seconds later, Mr. Mazaud heard a whistling sound "like the buzz of bees" and saw "a sort of dark craft" rise in the sky.

They note that the scene is odd, practically unique, and that it is difficult to decide based on these sole data. They mention the possibility of a "strange human meeting" "by a poor fellow a little bit of a simpleton" mixed a phenomenon UFO, though the coincidence of two such events seemed strange to them.



In the kitchen of the family farm in Mouriéras, one of the hamlets of the village of Bugeat, Antoine Mazaud, aged 56, recalls once again the crazy succession of events which he has just been through: the investigation by the gendarmerie, the arrival of the police chief of the General Intelligence bureau in Tulle, the questions of the neighbors, then those of the journalists. And now his portrait is on the front page of "La Montagne," the daily newspaper of Clermont-Ferrand! It is obvious now, wanderers and the curious will rush in to make him tell what occurred on Thursday, September 10, 1954.

That day, at nightfall, he was walking across the plate of Piloux at a few hundreds of meters of Mouriéras. Hard land and desolate ground, that moor of heathers and ferns, barely roughcast by solid masses of brooms and thorny bushes. After having rolled a cigarette, he was returning home, fork in the hand, at the end of a long afternoon of work. Suddenly, after passing a shrub, Antoine Mazaud encountered an unknown. The falling darkness hardly allowed him to distinguish the features from the face of that which was vis-a-vis him. He noticed that the man "was simply standing at the place where it had appeared, curiously balancing his head and his without saying a word. He carried a rather singular hairstyle. It resembled a very tight cap of dark color. His clothing was also of dark color." Although disconcerted by such a meeting, the Correzian peasant however lift an arm to shake hands, as the stranger had raised the hand for a handshake. "While pursuing his strange ceremony," the stranger then attracted Mazaud towards him to embrace him and moved away immediately afterwards.

The most extraordinary of the history is not over. Antoine Mazaud had only walked some 20 meters when he heard a light buzz, similar with that of a bee. Turning round, he saw "a machine of elongated shape which hovered like a bird very close to the ground. It resembled a long cigar of 4 to 5 meters. Its color resembled that of zinc. It passed under a power line and disappeared silently in the night" in the direction of the west. When he was back at his home, remained silent, of fear of not being believed. Nevertheless, the secrecy was too heavy to carry; in the evening, he entrusted to his wife who, the next day, informed her neighbors about it. From this moment, the news developed and caused the investigation of the gendarmerie.

The Gendarmerie could not question the sincerity of the Mouriéras farmer, described as a balanced man and enjoying the esteem of all in the area. On the other hand, on the plate of Piloux, no evidence was found. The mystery remained complete, even though other witnesses, in Limoges, stated, before the Bugeat "landing" was not known, to have seen a reddish disc followed by a bluish trail flying towards the west at the same hour, this 10 September.

A few days later, On September 20, a farmer of Lachassagne d'Alleyrat also saw a flying luminous object which practically hovered his tractor, causing the fear of his life to him... A new sensation item for the Press! Year 1954 corresponds to the largest wave of UFO observations in France - 178 cases of crafts landing on the ground or on the point to land and 62 descriptions of humanoids, pointed out Guy Quincy -, and the hard land of Haute-Corrèze has been particularly attractive for the extraterrestrials, if they do really exist.

(story from the book "A 100 years in Corrèze" by Jean-Michel VALADE (Les Trois Epis publisher, in BRIVE)

Sold at the House of the Press in BUGEAT

This book introduces a 100-caracteristics events which took place in Corrèze (1 for every year) between 1901 and 2000.


A witness of that time gives his explanation in #26 of the Journal Municipal de Bugeat (section 5.5):


The previous edition (25) of the BUGEACOIS narrated, under the title "on September 10, 1954, an extraterrestrial in visit in Bugeat," the encounter between Antoine MAZAUD and somebody and something.

This is part of my memories... I WAS THERE! Or almost.

La MONTAGNE, in its relation of the event indicated that Antoine MAZAUD spoke, on the road, with a neighbor and his son. The neighbor was my father, and the son: myself.

This occurred at the location called "Les Fonfreydes" at the limits between the villages of Bugeat and Toy-Viam. My father and I were returning by bicycle from my aunt's at La Batisse in Toy-Viam. Antoine MAZAUD had just turned over the hay, and fork on the back, went up towards Mouriéras.

After some routine conversation, and as the sun set, we separated, we by road on the bicycle, him by foot through the pathway that crosses the plate of "Piloux" directly regained Mouriéras by the way of "The Mazaud."

Sorry about the journalist, this was not a land of moor and brooms and thorny bushes, for this plate always was and still is worked, it has a flat surface, a large surface, favorable for a landing.

Antoine MAZAUD, crossing our plantation, before the plate, was taken by a sudden and natural urge and "dropped his pants" (something a journalist cannot write.)

It is when he stood up again, that he was face to face with a man dressed as in the description (dark colored tight fitting clothing and headcap).

Antoine was large and strong, brave, not a wimp, but... when your pants are down, it is hard to try to attack or defend yourself.

They thus "looked at each other in the eyes", and the individual, anxious on the attitude to take, went closer and... kissed him on the mouth, before turned around and leaving.

Our Antoine finished to button up, took his fork again and took the path home again, he was then attracted by a buzz, and looking up, he saw, not what the newspaper journalists "a craft with an elongated craft like a cigar" but a COUADIERE!

Explanation for our younger readers: a couadière is a wooden pointed tube, or more generally in our region, a cow horn that the peasants hung at their belt to carry the whetstone for his scythe.

Upon arriving at Mouriéras, Antoine said no nothing, but undoubtedly disturbed, his spouse being worried managed to get him to tell her what happened, of course under the seal of secrecy... Four days later, the entire France and the whole world knew about it.

As much as was often impassioned about UFOS and encounters of the third kind, reading many books, when it comes to the MAZAUD case, it seems odd that:

  • the outfit he described resembles strangely to the Soviet uniform as largely shown a few years later on picture of GAGARINE;
  • the kiss on the mouth, also so typical;
  • A horizontal hot shape strangely resembles the profile of the helicopters of this time which nobody was aware that they exist in France and even more unaware of in Mouriéras.

Sorry for the dream. Antoine saw a man, neither small, neither macrocephalic nor green; and a couadière not leaving any of the traces found in UFO landing cases.

Perhaps our strange pilot was also taken by a natural urge that forced him to land in the country...

[Ref. lg1:] LUIS GONZALES:

September 10, 1954 – Mouriéras

08:30 P.M. A peasant, Mr. Mazaud, returned to his house when he found himself in front of a man of normal size and capped of a helmet, which made friendly gestures at him, pressed himself against him, entered am object of 1 meter height and large od 4 meters, which left towards Limoges. One minute later, several inhabitants of this city saw a red and discoid object pass, which released a bluish gleam.

Sources: MAGONIA Catalog N.142 - Le Populaire du Centre (Limoges).


This summary is circulating on the French-speaking Internet, I have not located its source yet:

A farmer, Antoine Mazaud, who returns from his work in the fields, meets a strange being, of middle, capped with a sort of motorcyclist helmet.

"My first reflex, told the farmer, was to immediately use my fork, which I strongly tightened in my right hand, for I was not reassured at all. I was frozen on the place by fear. Then, all gently, he came towards me very slowly, while making salamalecs [Arabic expression used in France to indicate an exaggerated verbal politeness], and he held his hand to me. When he had reached me, I shook hand with him, he pressed my hand very firmly. Then, he drew me by the hand, he kissed me on the two cheeks. I remained "baba" [Arabic expression used in France when one is extremely surprised]. He had not pronounced a word. I became more daring, and I told him: "good evening." He answered nothing, passed in front of me and moved away a few meters. In the thick shade of the wood, it seemed to me that he was kneeling down. I then heard a light whistle. Then a sort of cigar, larger at the front than at the back, rose towards the sky, almost straight up. It passed under a high voltage wire and disappeared in the direction of Limoges."

The investigation opened by the gendarmerie of Ussel made it possible to establish that, this evening of September 10, little after 08:00 P.M., inhabitants of Limoges had seen a reddish disc which let a bluish trail escape, going from East to West.

[Ref. sd1:] STEVEN DUNN:

09/10/1954 Mourieras. FR
10 Sep 54

A farmer on his way home saw a man of average height wearing a helmet who made friendly gestures, then walked into a forest. A moment later a cigar-shaped craft took off.

CE-3-102 Randle/Estes, FOV pg 264

[Ref. djn1:] DONALD JOHNSON:

On this Day

September 10


1954 - Mourieras, France. A farmer, Mr. Mazaud was walking home when he was suddenly confronted with a helmeted being of average height who made friendly gestures, then went back into the brush, entered a cigar-shaped object about four meters long, which took off toward Limoges. A few minutes later witnesses in Limoges reported a disc-shaped, red object leaving a bluish trail. (Sources: Le Parisien, September 14, 1954; Aime Michel, Flying Saucers and the Straight Line Mystery, p. 40; Jacques Vallee, Passport to Magonia, p. 209).



Location. Mourieras France

Date: September 10 1954

Time: 2030

While returning home, Antonie [sic] Mazaud met a person of normal stature, wearing a helmet without earflaps, who shook his hands smiling, while pronouncing unintelligible words. The man then climbed into his cigar shaped craft, 15, or 20 ft long, and took off vertically, with a sound like a bee's buzz.

Humcat 1954-47

Source: Aime Michel

Type: B

[Ref. rh1] RICHARD HALL:



September 10, 1954 Antoine Mazaud, Mourieras, France 8:50 P.M.

One being of average height, "helmet"-like headgear; cigar-shaped craft; being confronted witness, extended arm and touched him.



September 10 1954, 2035hrs.


Farmer Antoine Mazaud was walking home to Mourieras, along a quiet country road, after working in his oat fields 1.5km from the village, had just finished a cigarette in a little wood and restarted on his way. In the gathering darkness he encountered a normal sized man wearing a form of motorcycle helmet. Shaken by the unexpected appearance of a stranger in this remote region, Antoine grabbed his pitchfork. After remaining motionless the stranger approached, making a sort of gesture above his head and bowing low. Antoine now decided he was dealing with a madman, and so when he was right in front of him, Antoine held out his hand to the stranger, who shook it hard, then pulled him right up, drawing Antoine’s head against his helmet. Very shaken Antoine muttered a greeting. The stranger made no reply and went into the shadow of the woods a few metres away, where it seemed he got down on his knees. A few seconds later Antoine heard a low hum and saw a dark cigar shaped object 4.5-6m long, swollen one on side, rise almost vertically among the branches, pass under the high tension wire and disappear in the sky towards Limoges, where, a few minutes later, witnesses saw a red disc with a blue trail flying east to west. Antoine arrived home white and trembling. Police investigations found no traces.

Michel 1958, p.40.

Vallee case 143 citing Le Parisien + Combat + L’Aurore all 14 Sept 1954.


Location: Chatellerault & Bugeat France

Date: October 1954

Time: unknown

Two men, at separate locations 120 miles away, allege independently that normal looking beings approached them, kissed them, jabbered unintelligibly, and then got into cigar shaped objects, 10 feet long, and took off.

Source: Harold T Wilkins, Flying Saucers Uncensored


Date: September 10 1954

Location: Mourieras France

Time: 2030

Summary: While returning home, Antonie [sic] Mazaud met a person of normal stature, wearing a helmet without earflaps, who shook his hands smiling, while pronouncing unintelligible words. The man then climbed into his cigar shaped craft, 15, or 20 ft long, and took off vertically, with a sound like a bee’s buzz.

Source: Aime Michel

[Ref. ni1:] "THE NICAP WEBSITE":

*Sep. 10, 1954 - Mourieras, France. A farmer, Mr. Mazaud was walking home when he was suddenly confronted with a helmeted being of average height who made friendly gestures, then went back into the brush, entered a cigar-shaped object about four meters long, which took off toward Limoges. A few minutes later witnesses in Limoges reported a disc-shaped, red object leaving a bluish trail. (Sources: Le Parisien, September 14, 1954; Aime Michel, Flying Saucers and the Straight Line Mystery, p. 40; Jacques Vallee, Passport to Magonia, p. 209).

[Ref. ubk1:] "UFO-DATENBANK":

This database recorded this case 19 times:

Case Nr. New case Nr. Investigator Date of observation Zip Place of observation Country of observation Hour of observation Classification Comments Identification
19540910 10.09.1954 Mourieras France 20.30 CE III
19540910 10.09.1954 Mourieras France 20.30 CE III
19540910 10.09.1954 Mourieras France 20.30 CE III
19540910 10.09.1954 Mourieras France 20.30 CE III
19540910 10.09.1954 Mourieras France Nightfall CE III
19540910 10.09.1954 Mourieras France 20.30 CE III
19540910 10.09.1954 Mourieras Bugeat France 20.30 CE III
19540910 10.09.1954 Mourieras France 20.30 CE III
19540910 10.09.1954 Mourieras France 20.30 CE III
19540910 10.09.1954 Mourieras France 20.30 CE III
19540910 10.09.1954 Mourieras France 20.30 CE III
19540910 10.09.1954 Mourieras France CE III
19540910 10.09.1954 Mourieras France CE III
19540910 10.09.1954 Mourieras France 20.30 CE III
19540910 10.09.1954 Mourieras France Night CE III
19540910 10.09.1954 Mourieras France 20.30 CE III
19540910 10.09.1954 Mourieras France 20.30 CE III
19540910 10.09.1954 Plateau de Milleraches France
19541013 13.10.1954 Bugeat France CE III


Aimé Michel indicates that a helicopter can be excluded as explanation for the flying object. If, starting from Mouriéras, you walk the path towards Les Mazaud, you quickly find yourself in a forest, not a likely place for a helicopter to land:


If on the other hand you walk around Puy Perdu which dominates the way with its 738 meters, the landscape is perfectly suited for the landing of a helicopter. And maybe this is where Antoine Mazaud's encounter of September 10, 1954 occurred, at least if one believes an inhabitant of the area, author of these photographs to illustrate his advice for a visiting walk in the area:

Le Puy Perdu

It would be advisable to check exactly where the point of meeting between Mr. Mazaud and the "helmeted" man. His craft being landed nearby, it may be possible to determine if Aimé Michel, trusting the newspaper, just imagined that the place is impracticable for a helicopter landing, or if on the contrary, it really was impossible for a helicopter to land.

However, there remains the difficulty mentioned by Michel that the craft "passed under a high voltage wire," if one admits that this information is true. Helicopter pilots do not risk anything like that.

In the same way the problem of the agreement with testimony remains: Mazaud is known as to have heard a weak whistle a few seconds after the unknown was perhaps down on his knees at some footsteps of him. How, if the account of Mr. Mazaud is not completely false, can anyone imagine that one can describe the sound of the takeoff of a helicopter at some step as a "weak whistling sound?" How can one imagine that Mr. Mazaud describes the machine and its takeoff as he did, if it were a helicopter? The blades of the rotor would have almost turned above Mr. Mazaud's head, and the noise would have been deafening.

There were helicopters around that time, and they were still little known in the countries. Doesn't the Sud-Est Aviation SE 3000, a resumption of the WWII German Focke-Achgelis Fa 223 prototype resemble a cigar (but it existed in only two specimens, quickly abandoned)? Let's also note that the first helicopters used by the Gendarmerie fly in 1953, the Hiller 360, Djinn and Bell 47, then the Sikorsky S-55 types. In 1954, the helicopter is still an innovation, 1956 is the years of the explosion of the use of the helicopter in the Gendarmerie (the "Alouette" type). The "banana shaped" helicopters mentioned by the author of the article in the Bulletin of Bugeat do not exist at all in France in 1954. Helicopters coming from Russia could not reach France.

SE 3000
Sud-Est aviation SE 3000

But how can one imagine that the Gendarmerie investigators and the Intelligence investigators both did not explain the case as caused by a helicopter, if there was the least chance that this was the explanation? And how could they have missed it if it was?


To be compliant with the facts, admitted that they are at least partly accurately known and correctly brought back, I can risk a helicopter hypothesis provided that:

Moreover, the assumption also forces to ignore the witnesses in Limoges, or at least, to consider that their sighting is not of the same phenomenon as Antoine Mazaud's encounter. This weakens to a certain extent any helicopter hypothesis.

I found a first candidate which more or less satisfies certain constraints, except one which it does very probably not satisfy at all.

After WWII, the Soviet Union tried to produce a lightweight helicopter. They had in mind some sort of "flying motorbike." The Kamov research offices took up the challenge and in 1947, they produced three exemplaries of a Lamov Ka 8 type, with two contrarotating rotors.

The machine is single-seated, and its light engine with two cylinders seriously handicaped it on the aeronautical level, but this engine is relatively quiet, and the machine is small and lightwight. It is not a good candidate, because these three exemplaries very probably never flew elsewhere than in the surroundings of the Kamov test facility.

But Ka 8 strongly interested the Soviet Military Navy: with its mini size, it can be embarked on board any small ship, it takes off and lands very easily, and it could be used in liaison, reconnaissance, and air intelligence missions.

I found a second candidate who more or less satisfies almost all the constraints. It satisfies some of these constraint in an amazing way.

The Soviet Military Navy asked for an improvement of Ka 8, which was to be the Ka 10, with much better aeronautical capacities thanks to its newer Ivchenko engine. This project was actively supported by the commander-in-chief of the Navy, admiral Kuznestov, and all the project was conducted under the clear intent to build a lightweight helicopter which could be used from small ships of the Navy, without requiring any modifications, for operations of liaison, reconaissance, and, this goes without saying, of air intelligence.

The first operational Ka 10 were used in 1951 in the Black Sea by a specially created Navy squadron under the command of Captain A.N. Voronine.

If we check the Ka 10 against our constraints, we have:

Ka 8 Ka 10
Kamov Ka 8 Kamov Ka 10


Not completed yet. A helicopter possibility is discussed above.


(These keywords are only to help queries and are not implying anything.)

Mouriéras, Corrèze, Bugeat, Antoine Mazaud, encounter, landing, cigar, noise, sound, luminous, red, blue, kiss, contact, Gendarmes, Intelligence, helicopter


Document history:

Version: Created/Changed by: Date: Change Description:
0.1 Patrick Gross June 21, 2005 First published.
1.0 Patrick Gross March 8, 2010 Conversion from HTML to XHTML Strict. First formal version. Additions [un1].
1.1 Patrick Gross March 15, 2010 Addition [mc1].
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1.6 Patrick Gross November 23, 2016 Addition [er1].
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2.0 Patrick Gross September 15, 2017 Addition [sm1].
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