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UFOs A to Z: E.

Click! Earth Chronicles
Click! EBE
Click! Ed, Mr.
Click! Edge of Reality
Click! Edwards, C.P., commandant
Click! Edwards, D.M., group captain
Click! Edwards, George, Lt.Col.
Click! Edwards, Ken.
Click! EJASA
Click! Ejecta
Click! Element 115
Click! Ellsworth AFB, 1953
Click! Emard, Fred
Click! Englund, Bruce, Lt.
Cliquez! L'Epine (sighting)
Click! Equigravisphere
Click! ESPI
Cliquez! Estimate of the Situation de 1948
Click! ET
Click! ET exposure
Click! ETH
Click! Ettenson, B.M., Col.
Click! Evan-Wentz, Walter
Click! Excentricity
Click! Exeter encounters
Click! Exobiology
Click! Extremophiles
Click! Extraterrestrial Hypothesis

Earth Chronicles

A series of six books by Zecharias Sitchin defending his theory that the Anunnaki, inhabitant of a 12th planet of the solar system, have had exchanges with men in biblical times and with than ancient civilization of Sumer 4000 years BC.


Extra-terrestrial Biological Entities. An unofficial term that is used to refer to aliens that originated from the MJ-12 briefing document.

Ed, Mr.

"Mr. Ed" was the pseudonym used by Edward "Ed" Walters, the principal witness in the Gulfe Breeze, Florida, USA multiple sightings and a UFO photographer, between November 1987 and May 1988 before he went public.

Edge of Reality

A book in which astronomer and Blue Book consultant J. Allen Hynek and Dr. Jacques Vallée explore seven possible theories to account for the UFO phenomenon, such as visits of our planet by extraterrestrial beings and holograms projected by a conspiracy of some scientific group with a hidden agenda.

Edwards, C. P.

Commander C. P. Edwards, was the Deputy Minister of Transport for Air Services in Canada when in December 1950 he started Project Magnet, an official Canadian government investigation to discover the origins of UFOs.

Edwards, D. M.

Group Captain D. M. Edwards was a prominent member of project Second Storey, an official project of the Canadian government to investigate UFO reports.


Material such as glass and fragmented rock thrown out of an impact crater during its formation.


The Electronic Journal of the Astronomical Society of the Atlantic (EJASA) is published monthly by the Astronomical Society of the Atlantic, Incorporated. The ASA is a non-profit organization dedicated to the advancement of amateur and professional astronomy and space exploration, as well as the social and educational needs of its members. ASA membership application is open to all with an interest in astronomy and space exploration. Members receive the Journal of the ASA and the Astronomical League's REFLECTOR magazine. Members may also purchase discount subscriptions to ASTRONOMY and SKY & TELESCOPE magazines.

For information on membership, you may contact the Society at any of the following addresses:

Astronomical Society of the Atlantic (ASA)
c/o Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA)
Georgia State University (GSU)
Atlanta, Georgia 30303, U.S.A.
Phone: (404) 264-0451 leave your address and/or receive the latest Society news.

Element 115

According to Bob Lazar, Element 115 is the yet-undiscovered super-heavy element which will allow us to make technology to harness gravity waves.

Ellsworth AFB, 1953

A multiple ground radar and multiple ground visual and airborne visual case occurred in 1953 at Ellsworth AFB and Rapid City.

Emard, Fred

In April 1959 an Air Force C-118 transport plane taking off from McCord Air Force Base in Washington hit an object in flight. The pilot radioed back, "We have hit something or something has hit us", and the pilot stated he would attempt to return to the Air Force base. However, he failed, and the plane crashed, killing himself and his three-man crew. Chief of Police Fred Emard at Oning, Washington, confirmed UFO reports of glowing objects following the plane shortly before the incident, suggesting a relationship between the sightings and the eventual fate of the aircraft.

Englund, Bruce, Lt.

Along with Sergeant Adrian Bustinza, Lieutenant Bruce Englund was one of the witnesses to the events at Rendlesham Forest on early morning of 28 December, 1980. A tape-recording made by Colonel Halt while investigating the UFO event in the forest includes his voice among others.

L'Epine (sighting)

On August 6, 1968, Sylvia Bonhomme and Michèle Boyer were hitch-hiking back from La Guérinière, France, and were at 2 km from the location L'Epine, at 01:30 a.m. under a starry and clear sky. They saw a yellow light high up in the sky that descended zigzagging and came within 60 meters of them. It then had the appearance of a dark mass, with the shape of a flattened egg, with three lights on its side, that lighted the ground. The object stays there a minute emitting a loud noise, then flies up vertically and fast until it is lost from sight in the sky. The young ladies went to the police to report their sighting by the officers suggested, despite their denials, that they had been drinking and that alcohol explains their sighting as a vision without reality.


Imaginary sphere that mathematically separates two gravitational fields created by two objects, for example that of the Earth and that of the moon.


Acronym for "Engin Spatial de Provenance Inconnue", i.e. Spacecraft of Unknown Origin. Termed in France in the 50's by the ufology group "Commission Internationale d'Enquêtes Scientifiques Ouranos."

Estimate of the situation of 1948

According to Edward Ruppelt, head of the Air Force UFO project Blue Book, in August 1948 the Air Technical Intelligence Center at Wright Patterson Air Force Base published a classified document stating that in their estimation UFOs were interplanetary. The document was rejected by the Pentagon under the motive that no hard evidence is presented, and the few copies of the Estimate were destroyed.


Extra-terrestrial. A term used to refer to aliens.

ET Exposure Law

In July 1969, the ET Exposure Law was added to US law without public debate, a law that prohibits anyone to come into contact with a UFO or any extraterrestrial life form. If a person breaks this law, he or she can be fined up to $5000 (five thousand dollars) and be jailed for up to a year. On top of that, a NASA administrator is empowered to determine, with or without a hearing, if a person has been 'extra-terrestrially exposed' and can impose that the person can be locked up in quarantine under armed guard for any period of time. The decision cannot be reversed, not even by a court order, making the law completely against the American Constitution. The law also effectively makes anyone involved in a close encounter a criminal. Since the law is in Title 14, Section 1211 of the Code of Federal Regulations, very few people know about it since you would have had to have gone through at least 1210 other laws in the book to find it.


Acronym for "Extraterrestrial Hypothesis". The expression is somehow unfortunate, as a meteor for example is also extraterrestrial, and the expression fails to reflect the notion of intelligence or intent in the "ETH".

ETH is the thesis or theory that indicates that while a large number of the UFO sighting reports are the result of confusions of really observed phenomena that are badly interpreted, as well as hoaxes and inventions (the socio-psychological hypothesis), there exists in the mass of the sighting reports enough evidence that some of them cannot be correctly explained as such and require another explanation, the more rational being that they are extraterrestrial visitors, or of the intrusion of devices or craft coming from intelligences whose origin is not our planet.

One part of the community of ufologists supports this thesis, other parts criticize it.

The expression seems to have been first used in France by the ufologist Aimé Michel in 1954 in his book "Lueurs sur les soucoupes volantes", and passed to the United States by the translation of this book, to get used by US ufologists such as James Harder speaking at the Congressional Committee one Science and Astronautics in 1968. It is used in the Condon report in 1968 as being "the idea that some UFOs may be spacecraft sent to Earth from another civilization, or on a planet associated with a more distant star."

The notion that craft with or without entities seen on Earth could be extraterrestrial visitors does not date at all from the reports of "flying saucers" in 1947 but was already put forth for example in the United States in 1896, and even before in other reports from other countries of what was later called close encounters of the third kind.

Ettenson, B.M., Col.

A memo from Colorado Project, also known as Condon Committee's assistant Robert Low was made public, and it read "The trick would be, I think, to describe the project so that, to the public, it would appear a totally objective study but, to the scientific community, would present the image of a group of non-believers trying their best to be objective but having an almost zero expectation of finding a saucer." This and other facts raised doubts within NICAP as to the impartiality of the Condon Committee investigation on UFOs and NICAP head Donald Keyhoe wrote a letter to President Johnson to share these doubts, Johnson never saw the letter and it was Colonel B. M. Ettenson who issued the reply from the Air Force Secretary's office, claiming to be on behalf of Johnson, and stating, "The Air Force awarded the UFO contract convinced that an impartial, open-minded, independent and objective scientific report would be forthcoming and we expect Dr Condon will fulfill the terms of the agreement." Analysis of the Condon Report suggests that it has failed on many aspects to live up to Colonel Ettenson's beliefs, and that the failures originated mainly from Dr. Condon's a vocal priori that studying UFO reports is stupid.

Evans-Wentz, Walter

Folklorist Walter Evans-Wentz (1878–1965) was a pioneer in revealing Thibetan Buddhism to the western world via his book "Tibetan Yoga and Secret Doctrines: Or Seven Books of Wisdom of the Great Path" and is more known to ufologists for his book "The Fairy Faith in Celtic Countries" which tells old tales of fairies and goblins at a time when such tales were highly fashionable. Wentz theorizes that fairies were a reclusive race of dwarfs, that they are disembodied spirits, or that they are a figment of our imaginations. Evans-Wentz concludes that they may indeed be a manifestation of inhabitants of a higher reality that only some of us are able to view, let alone understand. Some ufologist, staring with Jacques Vallée, hold that these tales are true and have much to relate with UFO occupants, which he thinks are not extraterrestrial beings but faked visions of extraterrestrial beings made up by some mysterious intelligence from some other world or "other dimension".


A value that defines the shape of an ellipse or planetary orbit; the ratio of the distance between the foci and the major axis.

Exeter encounters

The UFO observations and encounters around Exeter, New Hampshire, USA, particularly on Friday, September 3, 1965 are among the most impressive and best documented of all times. Scores of people, including two highly reputable policeman, swear that what they saw over a period of weeks in the New Hampshire area big, silent and glowing UFOs, that no investigation even that of the Air Force could deny or explain away.


The study of life throughout the universe. Synonyms are xenobiology, exobiology, astrobiology, one particular discipline being bioastronomy. Closed minds, irritated against the notion that we are not alone in the universe or very emotional with the very notion that we might not be alone in the universe argue that exobiology is "not a science" but "a pseudo science" under the motive that exobiologists are believed to have no sample of extraterrestrial life to study. In the recent years however, the alleged absence of sample of extraterrestrial life has become a matter of controversy more than a certainty, since there are scientist who do conclude that they do study samples of extraterrestrial life. A well known example if the Allen Hill Martian meteorite that is held to contain fossil extraterrestrial life forms, and other such meteorites. A lesser known example is the case for the presence of life on Mars be NASA's Viking lander instruments made by one experiment's conceptor Dr. Gilbert Levin. Despite closed minds, exobiology had now become a field of research for many scientists involved in numerous project to search for evidence of life in the universe either by studies of possible fossils in meteorite, by devising optical means of detecting traces of biological activities in exoplanets' atmosphere in the near future, or devising space probe projects to search for life in situ in places like Mars, or Jupiter's active satellite Europe, all places suitable to life at least in microbial form.

The term "astrobiology" was used as early as 1941 as the title of a paper by L. J. Lafleur and by Gavril Tikov in 1953 as the title of a book on the subject of the search for extraterrestrial life.

Ufology is the study of report of unidentified aerial phenomenon, and some ufologist hold either that some of these reports are indeed caused by extraterrestrial visitors, or hold that ufology is a worthy attempt that could result in such an outcome, or hold in-between positions. SETI-type projects hold that if there is intelligent like in the universe we may some time succeed in detecting waves the emit in the radio or optical spectra. It is thus not fundamentally illegitimate to view ufology and SETI-type approaches as part of a larger exobiology research domain. However, the emotions often attached to the subject of extraterrestrial life has resulted in the silliest protests to these notions by closed minds, but also by part of the people acting in one or the other approach.


Organisms that thrive in what still is commonly viewed as environments intolerably hostile to life. On Earth, know extremophiles are varieties of archaea and bacteria, probably very ancient in most cases, classified according to the conditions in which they exist, as: thermophiles, hyperthermophiles, psychrophiles, halophiles, acidophiles, alkaliphiles, barophiles, and endoliths. These categories are not mutually exclusive; for example, some endoliths are also thermophiles.

The discovery of extremophiles points out the extraordinary adaptability of primitive life-forms on Earth and justifies that the notion of "hostile environment" gets revised. At least microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System and beyond could thrive, since some of the extremophiles on earth live in conditions less harsh than those on Mars, for example.

There is also a large variety of extremophiles: Chemoautotrophs obtain their energy from the oxidation of inorganic chemicals, might be particularly suited to some other planets. Thiobacillu lives by oxidizing sulfur to sulfuric acid. Other types oxidize hydrogen to water, and so produce their own water. Others convert nitrites to nitrates. Ferrobacillus is using the very ineffective oxidizing of ferrous iron, so that this organism must have evolved some ingenious and yet to undestand method to boost its low energy input to the high levels needed to make essential chemicals such as adenosine triphosphate.

Certain species can tolerate wide extremes of acidity and alkalinity. Thiobacillus will grow in solutions containing 3% sulfuric acid, while other types of bacteria have been found in the saturated brine of the Great Salt Lake in Utah and in an icy pool in Antarctica containing 33% calcium chloride. Some bacteria survive enormous pressures, up to 10 tons/cm², while low pressures appear to pose no threat to them at all, providing that liquid water is present. Others, for example Deinococcus radiodurans have been found living in the radioactive cooling ponds where fuel cans from nuclear reactors waste are stored.

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This page was last updated on September 28, 2007.