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The 1954 French flap:

The index page for the 1954 French flap section of this website is here.

September 19, 1954, Tromborn, Moselle:

Reference number for this case: 19-sep-54-Tromborn. Thank you for including this reference number in any correspondence with me regarding this case.

Reports:

[Ref. lme1:] "LA MONTAGNE" NEWSPAPER:

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Still flying saucers and cigars

Clermont-Ferrand, September 22 (from our own correspondent). -- As one could expect, the statements of the four people who affirmed to have seen, in the evening of last Friday, a "flying cigar" in the sky of Clermont-Ferrand provoked an influx of testimonies.

These testimonies confirm the passage of "something" in the Auvergne atmosphere. But almost all observers give the relevant reasons why they believe it was simply a jet plane.

"Whereas it is true that a machine passed over the puy de Dôme, Friday at 7:15 p.m., said one of these witnesses, the first, I could not observe the aircraft in the half-darkness, which was flying at a very high altitude, leaving behind a trail of condensation typical of jet planes.

And this precision:

- At a time when one says that a jet plane was seen over Giat, a jet plane was flying over this area. Given the altitude of this aircraft, we could not see it, but the condensation of the gases it left behind formed a trail that actually had the shape of a cigar and was red, as it was in the rays of the setting sun. So I think witnesses who claim to have seen an interplanetary craft are in good faith, but had mistaken that red trail for the craft.

A third, finally, confirms these two statements:

- Last Friday, I was at my home, rue Champleury, in Clermont-Ferrand. I saw, around 7:15 p.m., a little pink cloud above the puy de Dôme. It intrigued me by his shape. Taking landmarks by means of the power lines, I saw that it was moving. I have directed upon this cloud a small telescope I possess, and which gives a magnification of about twenty-five times. Unfortunately, I did not have time to put it on its foot, and the tremor produced by my hand prevented a good observation. However, I realized that it was undeniably a flying craft. I could see a big black dot before the luminous tail. It was impossible for me to assess the distance and speed. I thought for a moment that it was a jet aircraft whose trail was illuminated by the declining sun. However, I was perplexed because I never saw a jet plane produce such a luminous trail and it disappeared suddenly.

Another mysterious machine was seen in the Moselle

Metz, Sept. 22 (from our own correpondent). -- Several inhabitants of the Moselle claim to have witnessed the moves of a mysterious apparatus - saucer or flying cigar - but it was only after three days of silence that the spectators decided to make their observations public.

It is Mr. Louis Moll, a rural guard at Oberdorf, who informed the gendarmes of what he had seen.

"I did not want to say anything sooner," said the rural guard, "for fear of passing for a visionary among my fellow-citizens. But what I saw seemed so extraordinary to me that I could not keep quiet any longer.

"It was Sunday evening," he said, "and I returned to my home at about 9:15 p.m. when my attention was attracted by a strange gleam coming from the east and approaching the ground a few hundred yards from the road, towards Tromborn, where the craft, which was at a very low height, stayed in place for about forty seconds before rising vertically and disappearing in a southeasterly direction.

[Ref. int1:] "L'INDEPENDANT" NEWSPAPER:

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FLYING CIGARS AND OTHER MYSTERIOUS MACHINES IN THE FRENCH SKY

LODEVE. -- The mysterious machine commonly called "flying Cigar", reported in the Puy de Dôme and the sky of Rome was seen Saturday, September 18 at 7 p.m. very precisely, by three residents worthy of faith of Lodève, in the North of the department of Hérault, as it moved at 1.500 meters of altitude approximately. The object was goings towards the South.

The witnesses were able to observe during nearly five minutes a pointed front, towing a brightly lit sphere of fire red color and moving without noise roughly at the speed of an ordinary plane.

On their side, returning from a patrol during the night of Tuesday to Wednesday, two gendarmes of Chateauroux, Misters Courtaud and Péninon stated to their chief that they had seen between 9:15 p.m. and 9:45 p.m. above la Fleuranderie, commune of Montlerchaume (Indre), a luminous machine immobilized in the sky, at a height of approximately 1.500 meters, then two others of greenish color at a greater altitude. The three mysterious objects, after having veered at right angle, reportedly took the direction of the North-West, South-east.

Mr. Louis Moll, guard-pastoral in Oberdorf (the Moselle), stated to have seen, Sunday, around 9:15 p.m., an intense gleam coming from space and touching the ground in the east of Tromborn.

This gleam, similar to that of a neon tube, the guard added, and coming from an object of rather vaste proportions, changed color. It became reddish and Mr. Moll claims to have seen "black spots" moving silently.

The object, motionless during nearly 40 seconds, started to rotate and carried out an almost vertical rise, taking the aspect of an orange ball and being flattened before disappearing at a vertiginous speed, in the south-eastern direction. The total duration of the phenomenon was one minute approximately.

The authorities who recorded this declaration, opened an investigation.

A "flying cigar" above Banyuls-sur-Mer?

PERPIGNAN. -- In the night from Wednesday to Thursday, three young boys from 16 to 17 years old, who walked on the pier of the Banyuls-sur-Mer harbor (East. Pyr.) saw in the sky a flying object going at high speed and from which red and green flames seemed to leave.

A little frightened, the boys went to tell their adventure to various consumers who were at the terrace of a coffee shop. But those searched the sky in vain they did not see any trace of the mysterious machine.

[Ref. ppe1:] "PARIS-PRESSE" NEWSPAPER:

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SAUCERS AND CIGARS CLOG IN THE SKY

... and cause a traffic jam in England

Cigars, orange balls, green discs, phosphorescent globes: since Sunday, it's been a continuous parade of flying saucers of all models. You can see them everywhere: in the East, in the West, in Lorraine, in the Parisian suburbs, in England. Actress Michèle Morgan believes she saw two of them the other night above the Invalides.

Do they take off from Mars or do they come out fully armed with the imagination of spectators obsessed with tales of anticipation and the revelations of "skeptical" journalists? We still don't know. But we hesitate to qualify as jokers those who report these "apparitions" when among them are - this is the case near Châteauroux - two gendarmes in uniform and in the exercise of their functions.

The two gendarmes, MM. Courtaud and Peninon, were on patrol the other night in Montierchaume, when they saw a luminous machine immobilized in the sky, then two others of greenish color, at an altitude of about 1,500 meters.

A country keeper, M. Louis Moll, from Obersdorf [sic] (Moselle) also assures us that he saw Sunday in the sky "a weird thing" that arose near the village of Tromborn.

- The craft, he said, looked a bit like a small bus. It then took on the appearance of an orange ball.

It is also a phosphorescent ball, but red this times and followed by a luminous trail, that a butcher of Saint-Fargeau, Mr. Rabot, saw yesterday evening around 8 a.m. near Ponthierry, a few kilometers from Melun.

Mr. Rabot thought he was seeing things and fled to find his neighbor, Mr. Binet, who came out with his wife. Both saw the saucer like him, as it continued to move for a few minutes.

In the Hérault, it is a flying cigar "towing" a fiery red gobe, that three residents of Lodève saw the other evening.

It was also seen yesterday, in the Vendée, by about thirty people, in Sigournais and Saint-Prouant. It was purple blue and shaped like a carrot... "topped of a sort of disc".

An industrialist of Origny-en-Tiérache (Aisne), Mr. Chovel, said today that he also saw, the other night, an orange disc which moved a hundred meters above the trees, at a dizzying pace.

Traffic jam

There will soon be a cigars and saucers traffic jam in the sky. Meanwhile, traffic was interrupted yesterday for an hour in Blackpool (England) by onlookers who contemplated a "round white object" swaying in the sky... and which, according to the authorities of the nearby aerodrome, may just be a simple weather balloon.

[Ref. nll1:] JOURNAL "NORD-LITTORAL":

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The "flying cigar" section
and other objects in the sky of France

Lodève, September 23. -- The mysterious craft commonly called "flying cigar" reported in the Puy-de-Dôme and in the sky of Rome was seen on Saturday, September 18, - 7 p.m., very precisely - by three trustworthy inhabitants of Lodève, in the north of the Hérault department, when it was operating at an altitude of around 1,500 meters. The object was heading south.

Witnesses were able to observe a tapered bow for almost five minutes, towing a brilliantly lit fiery-red globe and moving noiselessly at about the speed of an ordinary airplane.

***

Châteauroux, September 23. -- Returning from tour during the night from Tuesday to Wednesday, two gendarmes from Chateauroux, MM. Courtaud and Péninon declared to their chief to have seen between 9:15 p.m. and 9:45 p.m. above La Fleuranderie, commune of Montierchaume (Indre), a luminous craft immobilized in the sky, at a height of approximately 1,500 meters, then two others of greenish color at a greater altitude. The three mysterious objects, after having turned at right angles, would have taken the direction northwest, southeast.

***

Nancy, September 23. -- Mr. Louis Moll, country guard in Oberdorf (Moselle), said he saw on Sunday around 9:15 p.m., an intense glow coming from space and touching the ground east of Tromborn.

This glow, like that of a neon tube, added the guard, and coming from an object of fairly large proportions, changed color. It became reddish and Mr. Moll claims to have seen "black dots" moving silently.

The object, motionless for almost 40 seconds, started to rotate and made an almost vertical ascent, taking the appearance of an orange ball and flattening before disappearing at a dizzying speed, in the southeast direction. The total duration of the phenomenon was approximately one minute.

The authorities that recorded this statement have opened an investigation.

[Ref. nnm1:] "LE NOUVEAU NORD MARITIME" NEWSPAPER:

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"FLYING CIGAR"
AND OTHER OBJECTS...

Lodève, 23. -- The mysterious craft commonly called "flying cigar" reported in Puy-de-Dôme and in the sky of Rome was seen Saturday September 18, at 6 p.m. very precise by three trustworthy inhabitants of Lodève, in the north of the Hérault department, when it was operating at around 1,500 meters of altitude. The object was heading south.

Witnesses were able to observe a tapered bow for almost five minutes, towing a brightly lit fire-red globe and moving silently at approximately the speed of an ordinary plane.

- o-

Châteauroux, 23. -- Returning from tour during the night from Tuesday to Wednesday, two gendarmes from Châteauroux, MM. Courtaud and Peninon declared to their chief to have seen, between 9:30 p.m. and 9:45 p.m., above La Fleuranderie, commune of Montierchaume (Indre), a luminous machine immobilized in the sky at a height of about 1,500 meters, then two others of greenish color at a greater altitude. The three mysterious objects, after having veered at right angles would have taken the direction North-West, South-East.

- o-

Nancy, 23. -- Mr. Louis Moll, country guard in Oberdorf (Moselle), said he saw, Sunday at around 9:15 p.m., an intense gleam coming from space and touching ground east of Tromborn.

This glow, like that of a neon tube, added the guard, and coming from an object of fairly large proportions, changed color. It became reddish and Mr. Moll claims to have seen "black dots" move silently.

The object, motionless for almost 40 seconds, started to rotate and made an almost vertical ascent, taking the appearance of an orange ball and flattening before disappearing at a dizzying speed, in the South-East direction. The total duration of the phenomenon was approximately one minute.

The authorities that recorded this statement have opened an investigation.

... in the sky of France

[Ref. non1:] "NORD-MATIN" NEWSPAPER:

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Will the "flying saucers'
file be opened?

The file on flying saucers was considerably enriched in a few days. Since the appearance of the "flying cigar" in the sky of Rome, which moreover gives rise to an official investigation, many witnesses, reliable, have made concordant accounts on identical observations which they made a little everywhere above French territory.

The famous actress Michèle Morgan, herself, noticed above the Esplanade des Invalides two "luminous globes" of which she claims that they were neither an optical illusion nor a known type of craft.

In a written question to the Secretary of State for the Armed Forces, Mr. de Léotard, deputy for the Seine, requests that a scientific investigation be opened and that the public be informed.

"Flying bus"
in the Moselle

At 9:15 p.m., Sunday evening, Mr. Louis Moll, country guard at Oberdorff (Moselle), saw, he says, a mysterious craft landing in the neighboring village of Tromborn:

"It was, he said, the shape of a small bus. For 40 seconds, watch in hand, I observed it when it had just landed, I thought I saw black dots move inside the craft, which was lit. Then the "bus" rose vertically without noise and disappeared.

Saucers
in the Seine-et-Marne
in the Indre
and in the Hérault

Wednesday, around 8 p.m. a butcher of Ponthierry (S.-et-M.), Mr. Rabot, was driving by car on the national road n° 7, when he saw a craft of spherical shape, luminous, from where escaped also bright smoke.

Mr. Rabot stopped in front of the house of Ponthierry's trainer, who went out with his wife. For long minutes, the trio observed the craft, which made back and forth movements, then disappeared in the clouds at full speed. Mr. Rabot and the trainer are known in Ponthierry as very serious people.

Two gendarmes, MM. Courtaud and Peninon, returning from tour on the night of Tuesday to Wednesday, said they saw in the sky, above the town of La Fleuranderie (Indre), a luminous craft immobilized at 1,500 meters of height approximately.

Finally, three residents of Lodève, perfectly trustworthy, claim to have seen a "flying cigar" above the city conform to the description of the one who moved on September 18 in the sky of Rome.

[Ref. ner1:] NEWSPAPER "NORD-ECLAIR":

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FLYING SAUCER AND CIGARS
ARE STILL
SEEN IN FRANCE

MP asks written question to Secretary of State for Air

Several luminous or oddly shaped objects have still been seen in the skies of France in recent days, and everywhere the stories come from people known to be sensible and trustworthy. In front of the multiplicity of these testimonies, a deputy, Mr. de Léotard, asked a written question to the Secretary of State for the Armed Forces (Air), asking:

1° Wether instructions have been given so that these phenomena are systematically and scientifically observed;

2° If these "saucers" or "cigars" could not be hunted to be better observed, so that the public knows exactly if it is a matter of collective self-suggestion to dissipate, or if these phenomena should taken into consideration from the point of view of security and national defense.

THREE WITNESSES
IN THE HERAULT

The mysterious craft, commonly called flying cigar, reported in Puy-de-Dôme and in the skies of Rome, was seen on Saturday, September 18, at 7 p.m. very precisely, by three trustworthy residents of Lodève, in the north of the Hérault department, when it was operating at around 1,500 meters of height. The object was heading south.

The witnesses were able to observe for almost 5 minutes,

Continuation on the last page under the title: SAUCERS

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Saucers

a tapered bow, towing a brilliantly lit fire-red globe and moving silently, approximately at the speed of an ordinary aircraft.

Mr. Louis Moll, country guard, in Oberdorf, (Moselle) stated that he saw on Sunday around 9:15 p.m., an intense glow coming from space and touching the ground east of Tromborn.

This glow, like that of a neon tube, added the guard, and coming from an object of fairly large proportions, changed color. It became reddish and Mr. Moll claims to have seen "black dots" move silently.

The object, motionless for almost 40 seconds, started to rotate and made an almost vertical ascent, taking the appearance of an orange ball and flattening before disappearing at a dizzying speed, in the southeast direction.

The authorities who recorded these statements have opened an investigation.

[Ref. ads1:] "L'ARDENNAIS" NEWSPAPER:

"Cigars" and other flying craft still move in the sky

PARIS. -- The mysterious machine commonly called "flying cigar" reported in the Puy-de-Dôme and in the sky of Rome was seen Saturday, September 18, at 7 p.m. very precisely, by three trustworthy residents of Lodève, north of the Hérault, as it moved around 1,500 m of altitude. The object was heading south.

The witnesses were able to observe for about 5 minutes a tapered front, towing a fiery red-lighted globe and moving approximately at the speed of a regular plane.

Seen by the gendarmes

Returning from a patrol during the night of Tuesday to Wednesday, two gendarmes of Châteauroux told their chief that they saw, between 09:15 p.m. and 09:45 p.m., above La Fleuranderie, municipality of Montierchaume (Indre), a luminous machine immobilized in the sky at a height of about 1,500 m., and two others of greenish color at a greater altitude. The three mysterious objects, after turning at right angles, would have taken the direction north-west, south-east.

And a country guard

Finally, Mr. Louis Moll, country guard in Oberdorf (Moselle), said he saw on Sunday at 09:15 p.m., an intense glow coming from space and touching land east of Tromborn.

This glow, similar to that of a neon tube, added the guard, and coming from an object of rather large proportions, changed color. It became reddish and Mr. Moll claims to have seen "black dots" move silently. The object, motionless for almost 40 seconds, started rotating and climbed almost vertically, looking like an orange ball and flattening before disappearing at a vertiginous speed, in the Southeast direction. The total duration of the phenomenon was about a minute.

[Ref. lpe1:] NEWSPAPER "LE PARISIEN":

An article in the national daily newspaper "Le Parisien" was published on September 23, 1954, about this sighting: (Oberdorf is a few kilometers away from Tromborn).

On September 19, 1954, at 09:15 P.M. in Oberdorf, a bright light was seen in the Eastern direction, it landed and diminished its luminosity. It stayed on the ground for approximately 40 seconds. It had the size of a small bus and a silhouette was seen in front of it. I took off and then had the shape of a red balloon.

[Ref. ler1:] NEWSPAPER "L'EST REPUBLICAIN":

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There would have been more than one "saucer" in the sky of the Moselle

BOUZONVILLE (from our correspondent). -- In daytime yesterday, the gendarmerie of Bouzonville (the [M]oselle) was busy seeking possible witnesses of the passage of the flying saucer which would have landed Sunday evening on the heights of Tromborn.

Mr. René Paul, electrician-mechanic, residing on the road of Vandreching, in Bouzonville, talked, he too, to a comrade, [b]ut his confidence having quickly become an open secret, we managed to interview him. Mr. Paul states that what he saw, resembling a flying neon tube at a rather appreciable altitude, had passed in the sky of the Moselle in the evening of Saturday.

This fact would also have been observed by one of his comrades of work, originating from Tromborn, who is not so precise as he is.

With regard to Mr. Louis Moll, gate-keeper, who saw the saucer of Sunday evening, he maintained yesterday his statements and, in spite of the considerable number of his narrations, he always gives the same precise details.

It now rests with the police force to confront the statements of the witness of Teterchen with those of Mr. Moll.

[Ref. bre1:] "LA BOURGOGNE REPUBLICAINE" NEWSPAPER:

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FLYING SAUCERS (continued)

Two gendarmes and a rural guard saw in their turn mysterious machines

Lodève, 23 September. -- A mysterious "flying cigar" reported in the Puy-de-Dôme and in the sky of Rome was seen Saturday, September 18 at 7 p.m. by three credible residents of Lodève, north of the department of the Hérault, as it moved at 1,500 meters of altitude approximately. The object was heading south.

The witnesses were able to observe it for nearly five minutes a tapered front, towing a globe brightly lit, fire red and moving noiselessly at the speed of an ordinary plane.

Châteauroux. -- Returning from a patrol during the night from Tuesday to Wednesday, two gendarmes of Chateauroux told their leader that they saw, between 9:15 p.m. and 09:45 p.m., a luminous device immobilized in the sky at a height of about 1,500 meters, then two others of greenish color at a higher altitude. The three mysterious objects, after turning at right angles, would have taken the north-west, south-east direction.

Nancy. -- Mr. Louis Moll, a rural guard in Oberdorf (Moselle), said he saw Sunday around 9:15 p.m., an intense glow coming from space and touching earth, east of Tromborn.

This glow, similar to that of a neon tube, added the guard, and coming from an object of rather large proportions, changed color. It became reddish and Mr. Moll said he saw "black spots" move silently.

The object, motionless for nearly 40 seconds, rotated and ascended almost vertically, taking on the appearance of an orange colored and flat ball before disappearing at a dizzying speed in the south-east direction. The total duration of the phenomenon was about one minute. The authorities, which have recorded this statement, opened an investigation.

[Ref. vmr1:] NEWSPAPER "VAR-MATIN REPUBLIQUE":

According to several witnesses...

Flying cigars, luminous machines and other mysterious apparatuses evolve in the sky of France...

Lodève, September 23. -- The mysterious apparatus, commonly called "flying cigar" reported in the Puy de Dôme and in the sky of Rome was seen last Saturday September 18 at 7 p.m. very precise by three residents worthy of faith of Lodève, in the north of the department of the Hérault whereas it evolved at 1.500 meters of altitude approximately. The object moved towards the south.

The witnesses managed to observe during nearly five minutes a pointed front, towing a brilliantly lit sphere enlightened in fire red and moving without noise roughly at the speed of an ordinary plane.

They were three

Returning from a patrol during the night of Tuesday to Wednesday, two gendarmes of Chateauroux, Misters Courtaud and Peninon stated to their chief to have seen between 09:15 p.m. and 09:45 p.m., above of Fleuranderie, community of Montierchaume (the Indre), a reddish luminous machine, immobilized in the sky at a height of approximately 1.500 meters; then two others of greenish color at greater altitudes. The three mysterious objects, after having veered at a right angle had taken the north-western to south-eastern direction.

Black dots

M. Louis Moll, rural officer in Oberdoff (the Moselle), stated to have seen Sunday around 09:15 p.m., an intense gleam coming from space and touching the ground in the east of Tromborn.

This gleam similar to that of a neon tube, added the guard, and coming from an object to the rather vast proportions, changed color. It became reddish and Mr. Moll affirms to have seen "black dots" evolving silently.

The object, motionless during nearly 40 seconds, was put in rotation and carried out an almost vertical rise, taking the aspect of an orange ball and becoming flattened before taking the direction of the south-east at a vertiginous speed. The total duration of the phenomenon was one minute approximately.

The authorities which recorded this statement opened an investigation.

[Ref. fde1:] "FRANCE-DIMANCHE" NEWSPAPER:

Lorraine

Louis Moll (aged 47), railway crossing gate-keeper in Oberdorff, close to the border of the Saar, saw, on September 19, little after 9 p.m., a strange vision. He saw in the sky a kind of luminous round ball which changed little by little to a red color while taking a lengthened shape. The "thing" stopped a few moments before rising vertically, without a noise, in a sinusoidal movement. Then it slipped away to the horizontal while taking a round shape.

[Ref. cdn1:] "LA CROIX DU NORD" NEWSPAPER:

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"Flying cigar"
and other objects
in the sky of France

The mysterious craft commonly known as a "flying cigar", reported in the Puy-de-Dôme and in the sky of Rome, was seen on Saturday, September 18, at 7 p.m. very precisely, by three trustworthy residents of Lodève, in the north of the department of Hérault, while it was moving approximately 1,500 meters high. The object was heading south.

The witnesses were able to observe for almost five minutes, a tapered front, towing a brilliant globe lit with red fire and moving silently at approximately the speed of an ordinary plane.

Also, two gendarmes from Châteauroux, said they saw between 9:15 p.m. and 9:45 p.m., above the commune of Montierchaume (Indre) a luminous craft, immobilized in the sky at a height of approximately 1,500 meters, then two others of greenish color.

Finally, the country guard in Oberdorf (Moselle) said he saw Sunday around 9 p.m. an intense gleam coming from space and touching earth east of Tromborn (Moselle).

[Ref. nsl1:] JOURNAL "NEWARK STAR-LEDGER" NEWSPAPER:

THE RAGE IN FRANCE

'Saucer' buzzes Napoleon tomb

To be anybody at all in France these days you practically have to have seen a flying saucer, preferably one of the iridescent ones that change color like a juke box.

Being able to down gallons of champagne, or owning a slightly rundown château or even attending an opening at a theater hardly counts.

Flying saucers, and now flying cigars, are "sighted" practically daily by witnesses who are upstanding citizens, model of probity and sobriety and pillars of the community.

Latest to report the phenomena was movie star Michele Morgan who said she sighted a luminous disc hovering over the dome of Les Invalides, where Napoleon is buried.

"An old man near me also saw it," Miss Morgan said. "But he ran away."

Rainbow flying saucers are the rage in central France where draughtsman Jean Besse said he watched one Friday night through powerful binoculars. He said it changed color three times in a few seconds.

At Le Puy, west of here, hotel owner Marcel Maillet said he saw an iridescent saucer changing color like a juke box.

Louis Moll, a railway crossing guard at Oberdorff said he saw a saucer "land" last Sunday.

"It was about 7:15 P.M.," he said. "My eyes were blinded by a great luminous mass which seemed to touch the ground near the village of Tromborn. As it neared the earth, the color changed in what looked to me like Neon tubes. It was the shape of a small bus.

"IT TOUCHED the ground for about 40 seconds...

Finally it flew off, straight up in the air, lighted by an orange glow which changed to red. I heard nothing."

At Origny - en Tierache, Robert Chovet, his wife and brother-in-law were driving along tuesday night when, he said, they practically ran down a flying saucer.

"It hovered several meters in front of us," he said. "An enormous orange disc at just about tree level. It was immobile for several seconds and then swooshed straight upward with dizzy speed."

[Ref. tsr1:] "THE AUCKLAND STAR" NEWSPAPER:

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AND NOW THE "FLYING BUS"

PARIS, Friday. -- A Rural Guard, M. Louis Moll, said yesterday he had seen a "flying bus" bedecked with "neon lights" descend from the night sky and land near the Lorraine village of Tromborn.

"A great light came down out of the sky. It had the form of a little bus and seemed to have neon tubes around it. There seemed to be little black objects moving around in the lighted machine. After 40 seconds it took off vertically and disappeared trailing orange jets. During all the time I heard no sound."

Another report in the recent series of stories of strange sights in the sky over France came from the town of Origny en Thierache in the north.

M. Robert Chovel, an industrialist, said he and two of his relatives "suddenly found ourselves looking at an enormous orange disc which seemed suspended a few hundred mètres above the trees."

He said it remained still for a time "then disappeared."

At Chateauroux two policemen said they saw a luminous machine hovering at an altitude of about 5000 feet then two other machines of a greenish color at a greater height.

In the Southern Department of Herault several witnesses reported seeing what appeared to be a "flying cigar" towing a fiery red ball at a high speed.

Michelle Morgan the actress claimed she saw two flying saucers over Les Invalides, in the centre or Paris.

A French Deputy has submitted a written question to the Secretary of State for Air asking whether the aerial phenomena are being studied so that the public can be told "what is going on". -- N.Z. P.A. - Reuter.

[Ref. lqh1:] NEWSPAPER "LE QUOTIDIEN DE HAUTE LOIRE":

FLYING CIGARS IN THE FRENCH SKY

The mysterious craft, commonly called flying cigar, announced in Puy de Dôme and in the sky of Rome, was seen on Saturday September 18, at 07:00 P.M. very precisely, by three worthy of faith inhabitants of Lodève, in the north of the department of Hérault, whereas it evolved at 1500 meters altitude approximately. The object moved towards the south. The witnesses could observe it during nearly five minutes a tapered fuselage, towing a shiny lightened fire red sphere and moving without noise, roughly at the speed of an ordinary plane.

Two gendarmes saw it... And submitted a report with their chief.

On returning pf a patrol during the night of Tuesday to Wednesday, two gendarmes of Chateauroux, Mr. Coutaud and Mr. Peninon, stated to their chief that they have seen, between 09:15 P.M. and 09:45 P.M., above La Fleuranderie, village of Montierchaume (Indre), a luminous machine hovering still in the sky, at a height of approximately 1500 meters of altitude, then two others of greenish color at a greater altitude. The three mysterious objects, after having turned at a 90 degrees angle, are said to have taken the north/west to south/east direction.

The forest service officer was there...

Mr. Louis Moll, rural officer in Oberdorf (the Moselle) stated that he saw, on Sunday around 09:15 P.M., an intense gleam coming from space and touching the ground in the east of Tromborn. This gleam was similar to that of a neon tube, he added, and coming from an object of quite vast proportions, and changed color. It became reddish and Mr. Moll claims to have seen black points evolving silently. The object, motionless during nearly 40 seconds, went into a rotation and carried out an almost vertical rise, taking the aspect of an orange ball and flattened before disappearing at a vertiginous speed in the south/east direction. The total duration of the phenomenon was one minute approximately.

What does Secretary of State for the Air think about it?

These evolutions of mysterious machine of which an increasing number people are or believe being the witnesses however start to intrigue the opinion. Therefore Mr. de Léonard, deputy for the Seine, has just asked the Secretary of State to the Air, in a written letter: 1) If orders were given so that these phenomena are systematically and scientifically studied; 2) If these saucers or cigars could not be chased so that they are better observed, so that the public knows exactly if it is a matter of collective autosuggestion to dissipate, or if it is necessary to take account of these phenomena with the point of view of safety and National Defense.

[Ref. ppe2:] "PARIS-PRESSE" NEWSPAPER:

Scan.

Descended from his "saucer" in Loctudy (Finistère)

A MARTIAN, SMALL, HAIRY AND UGLY, TAPPED ON THE SHOULDER
OF A COURAGEOUS BAKERY APPRENTICE

... While in Paris, a cardboard salesman sees a "flying disc" above the Porte Dorée

AGAIN a Martian. Each department will soon have its own. It was in the Finistère that the last specimen of the species appeared. This time, he showed himself without a helmet, with his face uncovered. He was not pretty.

A baker from Loctudy, Mr. Pierre Lucas, saw him disembark yesterday at 4 a.m. in a saucer flying three meters in diameter, in the courtyard of the bakery.

- He was no more than 1 m. 20 tall, he says. He approached me and tapped me on the shoulder with unintelligible words.

"I managed to keep my cool," continues the courageous bakery apprentice. The visitor followed me into the bakery. In the light, I could stare at him. His face was covered with hair and eyes the size of a crow's egg. I called my boss, but the Martian, when he arrived, was already gone. And the saucer was gone."

That same night, a Concarneau beer merchant saw two luminous round tables in the sky, extended by a sort of tail.

In the Nord, one did not see a Martian, but the gendarmes of Beuvry-les-Béthune wrote up a report against a manufacturer of flying saucers. He is a pensioner, named d'Oliveira. He is not Martian, but Portuguese. A whole stock of saucers was found in his attic. In fact, they were paper balloons 1 m. 50 to 5 meters in diameter, and of all colors.

I launched thousands of them, he said. It was so beautiful. In the evening, it looked like fireballs...

The saucer factory is now closed. The industrialist will be prosecuted for "having set off flaming devices within 100 meters of the homes".

Bad day yesterday for the saucers in the Nord: an investigation, carried out at Bray-Dunes, near Dunkirk, allowed to establish that the craft seen in this region were jet planes from the Belgian base of Coxide.

"Flying tram"

A resident of Haubourdin however observed a "flying tram", and a child saw a saucer land at Cheny, near Lille; which left traces "like that, he said, of a frog man". The gendarmes examined these traces; they looked very similar to those of horse hooves.

Paris, which the saucers have neglected until now, was favored by an appearance yesterday afternoon. A flying disc, followed by a plume of smoke, flew at 4:30 p.m. over the Porte Dorée under the eyes of Mr. Allouis, cardboard salesman. Several other people confirmed his testimony. But a spoilsport suggests that the flying disc, which he also observed, was, it seemed, a flying wing.

One saw yesterday a good twenty saucers, cigars, fireballs, light globes, at Limoges, at Brive, at Azat-le-Ris and at Magnac-Laval (Haute-Vienne), at Forgès and Le Mazin (Corrèze), at Payzac (Dordogne), at Chàteau-Chinon, at Nassier, in the Poitou marshes, at Vix (Vendée), at La Rochelle, at Albi.

Near Clermont-Ferrand, two saucers which, in passing, gave off a smell of nitro-benzine; near La Rochelle, another one that left oil stains when it landed in a meadow.

Finally, a technician from the weather station at Mans-Arnage observed yesterday morning at 6:08 a.m. two strong dark red lights.

- They were, he said, neither planes, nor sounding balloons, nor meteors. But I will not go so far as to claim that these are flying saucers...

[Ref. bes1:] "BALTIMORE EVENING SUN" NEWSPAPER:

Scan.

Continental Diary

Flying Saucers - Cigar, Auto Bus,
Etc., Etc., Sighted Over France

By Noel Anthony

Paris, Oct. 9 -- A new wave of flying saucer sightings hit France this week. Film star Michele Morgan set the ball rolling by seeing "something odd" cruising over Les Invalides. She says a portly old gentleman on his evening stroll also so it and took to his heels.

(Note -- Miss Morgan's husband, obviously one of these skeptical types, just laughs and says "imagination." But Miss Morgan points out with fair logic, "how can a girl imagine old gentlemen running like Roger Bannister?")

Other reports describe French nigh skies being visited by (A) a flying cigar (B) Several glowing oranges (C) a violet-blue carrot and (D) what village gendarme Louis Moll, obstinately original, persists in saying was "rather like a small autobus." So far no landings, though restaurant-keeper Jacques Pre has a standing offer of a free meal for two and $50.000 for anyone who brings a Martian in to dinner.

[Ref. aml1:] AIME MICHEL:

Aimé Michel indicates that on September 19, 1954 in Oberdorff in the Moselle, rural policeman Louis Moll had the observation of which he made the following report:

"Sunday evening, towards 09:15 p.m., a sharp gleam appeared in the east, crossed the sky, and went down on the heights in the east of Tromborn. I saw the object from a distance landing on the ground, and then changing its luminosity, which dimmed. Its dimensions appeared to me as those of a small bus. After being stationary for approximately forty seconds, the gleam became reddish and I believed to see something black which moved at the front in silhouette. Then the object which was motionless animated again, went up, vertically as it seemed to me, it took the aspect of a red ball which moved away at once towards the south-east while becoming flattened before disappearing."

[Ref. gqy1:] GUY QUINCY:

Scan.

Scan.

September 19, [1954]

09:15 p.m.: Tromborn (Moselle)

09:15 p.m.: Oberdorf (Moselle): disc on the ground + silhouette

[Ref. mcs1:] MICHEL CARROUGES:

The author notes that the Moll observation lasted half a minute.

[Ref. jve8] JACQUES VALLEE - "FLYING SAUCER REVIEW":

Date Place Country Witnessed by Description of "Pilots" Total
19 Sept. 1954 Oberdorff France Paul & Moll a silhouette figure. 1

[Ref. jve5:] JACQUES VALLEE:

127 -006.59610 49.27500 19 09 1954 23 00 1 OBERDORFF F 0111 4C 091

[Ref. fle1] FERNAND LAGARDE:

In an article supposed to demonstrate that flying saucers roam over geological faults, this ufologist lists a case on the ground or near the ground in 1954 in Tromborn, according to Aimà Michel's book [aml1].

[Ref. jve1:] JACQUES VALLEE:

The author indicates that on September 19, 1954, a brilliant light was seen in the east of Oberdorff and approached the ground while becoming less bright. It was then seen as an object of the size of a "small bus." It remained on the ground approximately a minute. A silhouette was seen.

[Ref. jve2:] JACQUES VALLEE:

149

Sep. 19, 1954 09:15 P.M. Oberdorff (France)

A bright light was seen in the east, came to the ground, lost its brightness, remained on the spot about 40 sec. It was the size of a small bus, and there was a figure in front of it. It rose and took on the appearance of a red ball. (Le Parisien, 23 Sept. 1954) (12; M 63).

[Ref. prn1:] PETER ROGERSON:

324 19 September 1954 2115 OBERDORFF (FRANCE)

A bright light was seen, by the policeman Louis Moll, in the east. It came to the ground, lost its brightness, and remained on the spot for 40 seconds. It was the size of a small bus, and there was a figure in front of it. It rose and took on the appearance of a red ball.

(??149; Le Parisien, 23 September 1954; Michel II, 63)

[Ref. gal1:] CHARLES GARREAU AND RAYMOND LAVIER:

The two ufologists and authors indicate that on September 19, 1954, at about 9:15 P.M., according to newspaper clipping and their personal file, between Oberdorf and Tromborn, a rural forest guard, Louis Moll, saw an odd gleam appearing behind the hills. Then, a dazzling machine emerged and crossed the sky, slowed down, and landed on the heights, in the East of Tromborn.

The authors quote Mr. Moll:

"I saw, from far away, the object land on the ground. Its luminosity diminished. Its dimensions appeared to me as those of a small bus. After hovering still for approximately forty seconds, the gleam became reddish. It seemed to me to see something black which was silhouetted in front of it. Then the object, which was motionless, became again animated, raised vertically, taking the aspect of a red ball. It moved away quickly towards the south-east, while flattening before disappearing."

The authors indicate that the gendarmes of Bouzonville heard this witness and those of other sightings in the area at that time and that "all their statements match."

[Ref. fru1:] MICHEL FIGUET AND JEAN-LOUIS RUCHON:

The two authors indicate that on September 19, 1954, to 21:15, between Oberdorf and Tromborn, Louis Moll, rural warden of Tromborn, saw an odd gleam then a dazzling object emerge and slow down, and land in the East of Tromborn.

They quote the witness:

"I saw the object land on the ground, it had the dimensions of a small bus. It was motionless for forty seconds, the gleam became reddish, and it seemed to me that I saw something black shadowed out in front of the craft. Then the object became animated again, took off and took the aspect of a red ball. It moved away while flattening before disappearing."

The authors indicate as sources Jacques Vallée's catalogue, the book by Garreau and Lavier, the book by Aimé Michel and the newspaper "Le Parisien" for September 23, 1954.

[Ref. lgs1:] LOREN GROSS:

September 19th.

[... Other cases...]

Series of reports in the Sarre region of France. Sightings at Vaudrechinh [sic], Oberdorff, and Tromborn. The most interesting was the one at Vaudrechinh [sic].

The case follows.

An electrician by the name of Rene Paul saw something above the village, an elongated object that glowed with neon intensity. The time of this sighting is not known.

A short distance from Vaudrechinh, about a mile as the crow flies in that hilly country, at the tiny village of Oberdorff, a policeman named Louis Moll had this experience:

"Sunday evening at about 9:15, a bright light appeared in the east, crossed the sky, slowed down, and came down on the heights east of Tromborn. From a distance I saw the object land on the ground, and its luminosity diminish. Its size seemed to be about that of a small bus. After staying on the ground for about 40 seconds, the light became reddish and I thought I could see something black moving in front, just a silhouette. Ihen tne motionless object came to life again, rose up vertically, it seemed to me, and looked then like a red ball which went off at once toward the southeast, becoming flatter before it disappeared." 94.

[... Other cases...]

  • 93. Michel, Aime. Flying Saucers and the Straight-Line Mystery, p.62.
  • 94. Ibid, p.63.

[Ref. lhh1:] LARRY HATCH - "*U* COMPUTER DATABASE":

3798: 1954/09/19 21:20 3 6:35:40 E 49:16:20 N 3333 WEU FRN MSL 9:8

nr TROMBORN,FR:COP+1:BUS-SIZE OBJ LANDS:SILHOUETTE/FRONT:>SE:/r8#149+/r197p16

Ref# 30 FIGEUT[sic]&RUCHON: OVNI: Le 1er Dossier Page No. 80 : TOWN &CITY

[Ref. goe1:] GODELIEVE VAN OVERMEIRE:

The Belgian ufologist indicates that in 1954, on September 19, in France, in Oberdorf-Tromborn, at 09:15 p.m. "a brilliant light was seen in the East, it lands; lost its glare, remained approximately 40 seconds on the spot, testifies Louis Moll, guard-pastoral. It had the size of a small coach and there was a silhouette in front of it. It took off and took the appearance of a red balloon."

The sources are indicated as "Aimé Michel: 'M.O.C.' - Seghers pub., p. 85,86" and "Jacques Vallée: 'Chronique des apparitions ET' - DENOEL 1972 - J'AI LU COLL. - p. 259".

[Ref. lgs2] LOREN GROSS:

The French newspaper France Dimanche published brief accounts of various UFO sightings accompanied by drawings in its October 10, 1954 issue. These were included in the monograph UFOs. A History 1954 September, pages 31-33. Translations by "ADNf' of the French text exist in NICAP files and are provided here for the reader's perusal. (See below)

[... Other cases...]

No. 2 Lorraine.

Louis Moll, 47, gatekeeper at Oberdortt [sic], (Saar frontier) had a strange vision September 19th a little after 9:00 p.m. He saw in the sky a sort of luminous ball which slowly turned red and became elongated. It then stopped a few moments, before rising vertically, with a sinusoidal move ment and no sound. Then it took off horizontally, once more round in shape. [Translator's comment] (This dia gram does not seem to correspond very well to the text, which does not assert that the object landed, or that it be came cylindrical. A sinusoidal motion is /\/\"

[... Other cases...]

These French cases can be found on page 75 of the monograph UFOs: A History 1954 September. Translations of the French text were also done by NICAP's "ADM." [Alexandre Mebane]

[Ref. djn1:] DONALD JOHNSON:

On this Day

September 20

[...]

1954 - A bright light was seen in the east by residents of Oberdorff, France at 9:15 p.m. It came to the ground, lost its brightness, and remained in one spot for approximately 40 seconds. It was reported to be about the size of a small bus, and there was a figure standing in front of it. The object rose and took on the appearance of a red ball.

(Sources: Le Parisien, September 23, 1954; Aime Michel, Flying Saucers and the Straight Line Mystery, p. 63; Jacques Vallee, Passport to Magonia, p. 210).

[Ref. ars1:] ALBERT ROSALES:

70.
Location. Oberdorff France
Date: September 19 1954
Time: 2115

Louis Moll, a police officer, saw a bright light land on the heights; after landing, its luminosity decreased. It seemed as large as a small bus. The light became reddish, and he could see a black silhouette moving in front of it. Then it rose up again and went off.

Humcat 1954-51
Source: Aime Michel
Type: C

[Ref. uw1:] "UFOWEB" WEBSITE:

CITIES DEPT LATITUDES LONGITUDES YEARS
Oberdorf 68 48.917 7.767 1954

[Ref. jbu1:] JEROME BEAU:

September 1954

[...]

Sund 19 21:15 In the east of Oberdorff (France), a brilliant light is seen at the approach of the ground while becoming less bright: one then distinguishes it as an object of the size from a small bus. The object remain on ground 40 S (1 mn?) approximately. A silhouette is glimpsed in front of it. It takes off and takes the appearance of a red balloon.

[...]

Jérôme Beau indicates as sources "Le Parisien, September 23, 1954" and "Vallée, J., case #13, 'Rapport sur l'analyse de 200 observations documentées faites en 1954'".

[Ref. lcn1:] LUC CHASTAN:

Luc Chastan indicates that in the Moselle in Oberdorff on September 19, 1954 at 21:15 hours, "a brilliant light was seen towards the east, slowing down, it goes down on the heights to the east of Tromborn. The object lands on the ground and the luminosity decreases. The object remained approximately 40 sec on the spot. The object is described as having the size of a small bus, and a figure seemed to be detached in front of it. The latter rose then taking the aspect of a red ball and leaves towards the south-east while flattening."

Luc Chastan indicates that the source is "M.O.C. by Michel Aimé ** Arthaud 1958".

[Ref. uda1:] "UFODNA" WEBSITE:

The website indicates that on 19 September 1954 at 21:15, in Oberdorff, France, "A bright light was seen in the east, came to the ground, lost its brightness, remained on the spot about 40 seconds. It was the size of a small bus, and there was a figure in front of it. It rose and took on the appearance of a red ball."

And: "An object was observed. Occupants of the craft were seen. One red ball, about 10 feet across, was observed by two male adult witnesses (as reported to the police) in a town for over three minutes. No sound was heard. One silhouetted being was seen."

And: "Louis Moll, a police officer, saw a bright light land on the heights; after landing, its luminosity decreased. It seemed as large as a small bus. The light became reddish, and he could see a black silhouette moving in front of it. Then it rose up again and went off."

The sources are indicated as Webb, David, HUMCAT: Catalogue of Humanoid Reports; Michel, Aime, Flying Saucers and the Straight-Line Mystery, S. G. Phillips, New York, 1958; Bowen, Charles, The Humanoids: FSR Special Edition No. 1, FSR, London, 1966; Vallee, Jacques, Computerized Catalog (N = 3073); Vallee, Jacques, Preliminary Catalog (N = 500), (in JVallee01); Vallee, Jacques, A Century of Landings (N = 923), (in JVallee04), Chicago, 1969; Schoenherr, Luis, Computerized Catalog (N = 3173); Rogerson, Peter, World-Wide Catalog of Type 1 Reports; Delaire, J. Bernard, UFO Register Volume 7 (1976), Data Research, Oxford, 1976; Newspaper Clippings; Hatch, Larry, *U* computer database, Author, Redwood City, 2002; Rosales, Albert, Humanoid Sighting Reports Database.

[Ref. isu1:] "ISUNDGAU" BLOG:

That blog presents several cases in Alsace they fished on the web, including this one:

Observation that was the stopic of an article in the national daily "Le Parisien" on September 23, 1954:

On September 19, 1954, at 9:15 p.m. in Oberdorf, a bright light was seen to the east, it landed, lost its brightness, remained on site for about 40 seconds. It was the size of a small coach and there was a figure in front of it. It took off and assumed the appearance of a red balloon.

There is no source reference for this case, cited among other cases. There is only, at the end of the article, a series of links to several ufology websites and web pages, including a link to the old URL of the home page of my own website.

[Ref. prn2:] PETER ROGERSON:

September 19 1954, 2115hrs

OBERDORFF (MOSELLE : FRANCE)

Policeman Louis Moll observed a bright light that appeared in the east crossed the sky, slowed down and came down east of Tromborn. From a distance he saw the object land and its luminosity diminish. It appeared to be the size of a small bus. After 40 seconds the light became reddish and he thought he saw a dark silhouette moving in front of it. Then the object rose up vertically, looking like a red ball that flattened as it moved off to the southeast. Another witness at Tromborn saw luminosity behind the hills, and at Vaudreching, 5km to the west, electrician Rene Paul saw an elongated object with luminous neon light pass over.

Michel 1958, p.63.
Vallee Case 149, citing Le Parisien 23 September 1954.

[Ref. nip1:] "THE NICAP WEBSITE":

*Sep. 20, 1954 - A bright light was seen in the east by residents of Oberdorff, France at 9:15 p.m. It came to the ground, lost its brightness, and remained in one spot for approximately 40 seconds. It was reported to be about the size of a small bus, and there was a figure standing in front of it. The object rose and took on the appearance of a red ball. (Sources: Le Parisien, September 23, 1954; Aime Michel, Flying Saucers and the Straight Line Mystery, p. 63; Jacques Vallee, Passport to Magonia, p. 210).

[Ref. tai1:] "THINK ABOUT IT" WEBSITE:

Date: September 19 1954

Location: Oberdorff France

Time: 2115

Louis Moll, a police officer, saw a bright light land on the heights; after landing, its luminosity decreased. It seemed as large as a small bus. The light became reddish, and he could see a black silhouette moving in front of it. Then it rose up again and went off.

Source: Aime Michel

[Ref. ubk1:] "UFO-DATENBANK":

This database recorded this case 12 times instead of once:

Case Nr. New case Nr. Investigator Date of observation Zip Place of observation Country of observation Hour of observation Classification Comments Identification
19540919 19.09.1954 Oberdorf France
19540919 19.09.1954 Oberdorff France 21.15 CE III
19540919 19.09.1954 Oberdorff France 21.15 CE III
19540919 19.09.1954 Oberdorf France 21.15 CE III
19540919 19.09.1954 Oberdorff France 21.15 CE III
19540919 19.09.1954 Oberdorff France 21.15 CE III
19540919 19.09.1954 Oberdorff France 21.15 CE III
19540919 19.09.1954 Oberdorff France 21.15 CE III
19540919 19.09.1954 Oberdorff France 21.15 CE III
19540919 19.09.1954 Oberdorff France 21.15 CE III
19540919 19.09.1954 Oberdorff France 21.15 CE III
19540919 19.09.1954 Tromborn France 21.15

[Ref. prn3:] PETER ROGERSON - "INTCAT":

September 19 1954. 2115hrs.

OBERDORFF (MOSELLE : FRANCE)

Policeman Louis Moll observed a bright light that appeared in the east crossed the sky, slowed down and came down east of Tromborn. From a distance he saw the object land and its luminosity diminish. It appeared to be the size of a small bus. After 40 seconds the light became reddish and he thought he saw a dark silhouette moving in front of it. Then the object rose up vertically, looking like a red ball that flattened as it moved off to the southeast. Another witness at Tromborn saw luminosity behind the hills, and at Vaudreching, 5km to the west, electrician Rene Paul saw an elongated object with luminous neon light pass over.

Explanations:

Not looked for yet.

Map.

Keywords:

(These keywords are only to help queries and are not implying anything.)

Tromborn, Moselle, Oberdorf, Louis Moll, bright, light, landing, red, sphere, neon, rotation, manoevers, rise, occupants

Sources:

[----] indicates sources that are not yet available to me.

Document history:

Version: Created/Changed by: Date: Change Description:
0.1 Patrick Gross January 12, 2006 First published.
1.0 Patrick Gross June 16, 2009 Conversion from HTML to XHTML Strict. First formal version. Additions [goe1], [jbu1], [lcn1], [uda1].
1.1 Patrick Gross June 2, 2010 Addition [ler1].
1.2 Patrick Gross June 17, 2010 Addition [jve5].
1.3 Patrick Gross October 23, 2011 Addition [int1].
1.4 Patrick Gross August 13, 2013 Addition [prn1].
1.5 Patrick Gross October 3, 2014 Additions [jve8], [nip1].
1.6 Patrick Gross November 18, 2014 Addition [tai1].
1.7 Patrick Gross December 16, 2016 Additions [lgs2], [ubk1].
1.8 Patrick Gross January 18, 2017 Addition [bre1].
1.9 Patrick Gross January 20, 2017 Addition [lme1].
2.0 Patrick Gross February 25, 2017 Addition [tsr1].
2.1 Patrick Gross February 14, 2018 Additions [uw1], [isu1].
2.2 Patrick Gross January 8, 2020 Additions [ppe1], [ppe2], [ads1], [bes1], [prn1], [lhh1], [prn3].
2.3 Patrick Gross February 27, 2020 Addition [nnm1].
2.4 Patrick Gross March 25, 2020 Additions [cdn1], [non1], [nll1].
2.5 Patrick Gross June 23, 2020 Addition [ner1].
2.6 Patrick Gross March 11, 2021 Additions [gqy1], [fle1], [lgs1].

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