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ACUFO:

ACUFO is my comprehensive catalogue of cases of encounters between aircraft and UFOs, whether they are "explained" or "unexplained".

The ACUFO catalogue is made of case files with a case number, summary, quantitative information (date, location, number of witnesses...), classifications, all sources mentioning the case with their references, a discussion of the case in order to evaluate its causes, and a history of the changes made to the file.

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Klagenfurt, Austria, November 24, 1944:

Case number:

ACUFO-1944-11-24-KLAGENFURT-1

Summary:

In 1957, Major William D. Leet, of Lexington, Kentucky, USA, in reserve of the US Air Force, contacted the National Investigation Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP) ufology group, to report his two UFO experiences. one of which took place during WWII.

He told about this sighting several times in the Press and ufology magazines in the 1960-1970, having developed a deep interest in the UFO question, becoming the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON) State Section Director in Arkansas.

He reported that on the cold dark night of November 24, 1944, he was missioned to fly a "Lone Wolf" bombing mission to Salzburg in his B-17, at a time when he had heard no mention of "Foo Fighters." The officer who gave them the intelligence part of the briefing listed the number of heavy and light antiaircraft guns they could expect at the target, and what types and how many German fighters might hit then. They were also given alternate targets, in case they had to bomb one of them because of inability to reach the primary target: the railroad marshalling yards at Salzburg.

Leet was the pilot of "Old Crow," the B-17 he nearly always had on combat missions and called "my airplane." He intended to push the bomber just as high as it would go - 30,000 feet, at least. As he had bombed Salzburg one time before, he knew the Germans would use their antiaircraft guns.

But just after takeoff from the base in Amendola, Italy, one of the superchargers of the B-17 stopped functioning, which meant that they could climb no higher than 18,000, much too low to esapce the flak in Salzburg. The navigator, bombardier and he thus selected railroad yards of Klagenfurt for an alternate target.

The bomber reached 18,000 feet only from his patient coaxing, as it was overloaded, carrying thousands of pounds of fuel, ammunition and bombs above the maximum gross weight. The weather had improved considerably, with a high overcast blackening the sky, but much of the time they were not in clouds and icing conditions. They flew by instruments a north-northwesterly course up the Adriatic Sea, and on to Klagenfurt.

Soon after turning on the bomb run and opening the bomb bay doors, they were in a blinding light. Leet said he felt the heat from it, and thought the Germans had caught is plane in their searchlights. But it lasted only two or three seconds. They kept flying the bomb run, seeing and feeling no more of the light. He thought no more about it as this was the crucial moment of the mission, and he concentrated on maintaining a constant airspeed and keeping Old Crow flying straight and level, so the bombardier could put the bombs precisely on target.

After the bombs drop, Leet directed the B-17 back for safety, realizing they had gotten no flak on the bomb run, and encountered no German fighters.

Heading back toward Trieste, they all at once saw a round amber light appear just off their left wing. None in the crew had seen it approach or had any sight of it until it was right beside the B-17, flying along in formation with them. The object's outline was a perfect circle; its color was a luminous orange-yellow, very luminous. Leet said they could only guesstimate its distance and size. To him, it looked to be about 50 yards out from the wingtip, 10 yards to the rear, and 10 feet in diameter.

The gunners wanted to shoot it, but Leet ordered them not to he thought that if the thing was hostile, they would have been shot down without ever having seen it. The weird thing kept them company, with its position relative not varying: its shape did not change, its brilliance never wavered. Leet was unable to ascertain the shape; he said it could have been a sphere, or a disk at 90 degrees to the earth's surface. He said it was definitely not the exhaust or lights from another aircraft, and it was positively neither manmade nor a natural occurrence.

After 45 to 50 minutes, the thing just turned off, like an electric light goes out when turned off by flipping a switch.

The rest of the return to Amendola was uneventful, and after landing, the Intelligence officer conducted the crew's debriefing. The crew reported the standard items of weather, the alternate target we hit, bomb, strike accuracy, and the fact that they encountered no enemy resistance. Then Leet mentioned the momentary light they saw into on the bomb run, and inquired whether there, were searchlights at Klagenfurt, and the intelligence officer said they were the first to report that.

Leet then described the amber object and its behavior, and the Intelligence officer told him that it was a "new secret German fighter." To Leet's answer that it did not shoot at then, the Intelligence officer rebutted that it was radioing they course, altitude and airspeed to the German antiaircraft batteries. When Leet reminded him that we they had not seen one burst of flak the entire night, he said nothing more - he had run out of stock answers.

Data:

Temporal data:

Date: November 24, 1944
Time: Night.
Duration: 45 minutes.
First known report date: 1957
Reporting delay: Hours, 13 years.

Geographical data:

Country: Austria, Italy
State/Department:
City: Klagenfurt, Trieste

Witnesses data:

Number of alleged witnesses: Several.
Number of known witnesses: 1
Number of named witnesses: 1

Ufology data:

Reporting channel: Debriefing, reported to ufology group NICAP.
Visibility conditions: Night.
UFO observed: Yes.
UFO arrival observed: Yes.
UFO departure observed: Yes.
UFO action: Follows plane on left wing.
Witnesses action: None.
Photographs: No.
Sketch(s) by witness(es): No.
Sketch(es) approved by witness(es): No.
Witness(es) feelings: Puzzled.
Witnesses interpretation: ?

Classifications:

Sensors: [X] Visual: Several.
[ ] Airborne radar:
[ ] Directional ground radar:
[ ] Height finder ground radar:
[ ] Photo:
[ ] Film/video:
[ ] EM Effects:
[ ] Failures:
[ ] Damages:
Hynek: NL
Armed / unarmed: Armed, eleven 12.7 mm Browning M2 machine guns.
Reliability 1-3: 2
Strangeness 1-3: 3
ACUFO: Possible extraterrestrial craft.

Sources:

[Ref. nsb1:] "NICAP SPECIAL BULLETIN":

Scan.

WW2 UFO REPORTED TO NICAP BY AIR FORCE RESERVE MAJOR

Three official UFO sightings, one in WW2, have just been revealed to NICAP by a veteran Air Force pilot with combat service In Europe and Korea. An Air Force Reserve major with the Distinguished Flying Cross, four Air Medals and Five other decorations, this pilot has offered to help NICAP and soon may let his name be published.

"In December 1944," he reports, "my B-17 and my crew and I were kept company by a Foo Fighter- a small amber disc ¬all the way from Klagenfurt, Austria, to the Adriatic Sea. This occurred on a ‘lone wolf’ mission in the 15th Air Force 5th Wing, 2nd Bomb Group.

"The Intelligence officer who debriefed us stated that it was a new German fighter but could not explain why it did not fire at us or-if it was reporting our heading, altitude and air speed-why we did not receive anti-aircraft fire."

The other two sightings - in 1952 and 1957 - will be covered in a later bulletin or magazine. Both occurred during AF missions and were officially logged.

"As a crusader for truth," the pilot told NICAP's Director, "I understand the difficulties under which you and your associates are and I offer my services."

From his impressive record in the Air Force and in private life, we believe his offer of aid will lead to important developments - probably on Capitol Hill. Our members will be kept informed.

[Ref. jve1:] JACQUES VALLEE:

In December, 1944, a Major Leet, a bomber pilot, watched a disk follow the plane's maneuvers at Klagenfurt, Austria, at night.

[... other cases...]

But observations of this type are not very conclusive; enormous orange lights can be caused by reflections or even by phenomena of atmospheric distortion, as Dr. Menzel has pointed out.

[... other case...]

The lights seen at night by pilots during the war have been called "foo-fighters." As we have seen, they were merely balls of light, red or orange, without details or structure. They do not seem to have been detected on radar. Seen at night or during the day, they followed the planes even into the clouds. But these reports have to be considered with caution, for the behavior of the objects is very often that of a distorted image of the aircraft itself or a reflection of some ground object. The wartime conditions, the birth of a new technology involving rockets, electronic guidance and the ever-present fear of "secret weapons" make the sightings of that period difficult to analyze.

[Ref. bph1:] BRINSLEY LE POER TRENCH:

One December night, the same year [1944], a Major Leet, a bomber pilot, saw a luminous disc follow his plane and its manoeuvres, while flying over Klagenfurt, Austria. 3"

The source "3" is described as "Hall Richard, Editor, The UFO Evidence, published by the National Investigation Committee on Aerial Phenomena, (NICAP) Washington 1964."

[Ref. wlt1:] WILLIAM D. LEET:

Scan.

MAJOR WILLAM D. LEET
UNITED STATES AIR FORCE
Reserve
Rt. 1, Lexington, Ky

11 March 1958

Major Donald E. Keyhoe, director
National Investigating Committee
on Aerial Phenomena
Washington, D. C.

Dear Major Keyhoe:

Long before your book, "Flying Saucers Are Real", was published, my B-17 and my crew and I were kept company by a "Foo Fighter", a small amber disc, all the way from Klagenfurt Austria to the Adriatic Sea. This occurred on a "lone wolf" mission at night, as I recall, in December, 1944 in the 15th Air Force, 5th Wing, 2nd Bomb Group. The intelligence officer who debriefed us stated that it was a new German fighter but could not explain why it did not fire at us or, if it was reporting our heading, altitude and airspeed, why we did not receive anti-aircraft fire.

On about 13 October 1952, while I was copilot on a C-54 Troop Carrier mission out of Tachikawa and heading South toward Oshima at dusk, I noticed in the strato-cumulus formation Westward what appeared to be a perfectly round cloud. After watching it for about a minute, and deciding it wasn't a cloud, I called it to the attention of the pilot and engineer. The pilot was intent upon his flight plan but the engineer got several good glimpses of the object. Seven minutes after I first saw it, it took an elliptical shape and sped off to the West, disappearing within a few seconds, toward Mount Fuji.

While stationed at McLelland AFB near Sacramento, California from July, 1955 to December, 1957, I noticed a tremendous number of luminous blue-green object transcending the sky from horizon to horizon in an instant. On an AOC mission one night off the California Coast I had the radio operator report such an observation. He, and a day or two later one of our intelligence officers, told me that the same object was reported by an airline pilot.

As a crusader for truth I believe that I understand the difficulties under which you and your associates labor, and I would like to offer my services. I am coming to Washington soon for an appointment with Senator Cooper and if it is not inconvenient would like an appointment with you. I am enclosing a copy or Form 57 for your information.

Sincerely,

[Signature.]

[Ref. vgs1:] VINCENT H. GADDIS:

This author indicates that Major William D. Leet, of Lexington, Kentucky, is one of few men who observed fighters in both Europe and Japan. In December 1944, while on a "lone wolf" mission in a B-17, an amber ball kept company with his plane and crew all the way from Klagenfurt, Austria, to the Adriatic Sea, and Leet noted that during the entire flight no anti-aircraft fire was encountered.

[Ref. gld1:] GORDON LORE AND HAROLD DENEAULT:

Sixteen years after the armistice, The Nashville Banner, on February 15, 1961, published an interview with a veteran whose "flying saucer" talk at a local club had touched off a new round of discussion and speculation.

The veteran, Joe Thompson, then an agent for Northwestern Mutual Insurance Co., was described by the Banner as a college graduate, a family man and a responsible civic leader whose "interest in flying saucers stems from his World War II experiences in air reconnaissance work over Germany."

The story said: "Reconnaissance crews kept seeing 'strange circular objects over the Rhine Valley,' he recalled. They flew in formation and could not be overtaken by American planes. 'We thought they were some sort of German aircraft device,' he said, 'until after the war when we discovered the Germans thought they were ours.' "

Thompson's statement indicated that reconnaissance, a vital instrument in gathering information on enemy activity, was at a loss to explain the mysterious craft.

"My B-17 crew and I were kept' company by a 'foo-fighter,' a small amber disc, all the way from Klagenfurt, Austria, to the Adriatic Sea,'' said Maj. William D. Leet. "This occurred on a 'lone wolf' mission at night, as I recall, in December, 1944, in the 15th Air Force, 5th Wing, 2nd Bomb Group. The intelligence officer who debriefed us stated that it was a new German fighter but could not explain why it did not fire at us or, if it was reporting our heading, altitude and airspeed, why we did not receive anti-aircraft fire." 2

The authors indicate that the witness is quoted from a letter he sent to Major Donald Keyhoe, NICAP Director, in 1958.

[Ref. lgs1:] LOREN GROSS:

A major Leet recalled that a small disc-like object, yellow in color, followed a B-17 he was piloting as he returned from a mission over Germany. The object stayed with his bomber for 100 miles. When an intelligence officier suggested that the mystery object might have been a German fighter during his debriefing, Major Leet wondered why his bomber experienced no hostile fire.

[Ref. jcf1:] JEROME CLARK AND LUCIUS FARISH:

According to Maj. William D. Leet, "My B-17 crew and I were kept company by a 'foo fighter,' a small amber disc, all the way from Klagenfurt, Austria, to the Adriatic Sea. This occurred on a 'lone wolf' mission at night, as I recall, in December 1944 in the 15th Air Force, 5th Wing, 2nd Bomb Group. The intelligence officer who debriefed us stated that it was a new German fighter but could not explain why it did not fire at us or, if it was reporting our heading, altitude, and airspeed, why we did not receive antiaircraft fire."

[Ref. mbd1:] MICHEL BOUGARD:

The author indicates that in December 1944, Major Leet, on board a B-17 bomber, observed an amber disk which seemed to follow the maneuvers of the plane flying over Klagenfurt (Austria).

[Ref. mun1:] "MUFON UFO JOURNAL":

Scan.

Capt. William D. Leet, left, and his brother Lt. Warren R. Leet, World War II bomber pilots. Bill, now MUFON State Section Director in Arkansas, had three UFO sightings while on active flying duty. His "foo-fighter" report appears on page 3.

Scan.

THE FLYING FORTRESS AND THE FOO-FIGHTER
By William D. Leet

(Copyright 1979 by William D. Leet)

On that cold, dark night of November 24, 1944, when my B-17 crew and I were briefed to fly a "Lone Wolf bombing mission to Salzburg, no mention was made of "Foo Fighters." The officer who gave us the intelligence part of the briefing listed the number of heavy and light antiaircraft guns we could expect at the target, and what types and how many German fighters might hit us. We were also given these figures for alternate targets, in case we had to bomb one of them because of inability to reach the primary target: the railroad marshalling yards at Salzburg. We were also briefed on escape routes and procedures to follow if we should be shot down, but parachute safely to the ground and have a chance to make it back to Allied lines.

There was no mention whatsoever in the briefing that there was a chance of our being encountered by a Foo Fighter. Kenneth Arnold's vista of the "Flying Saucers" was yet to occur, and years would pass before Captain Edward Ruppelt's coining of "UFO," but our Intelligence people knew very well that the Foo Fighters were real. Intelligence officers interrogated pilots and crews after combat missions, and had received numerous accounts of the unearthly craft over Europe and the Pacific. As the UFO cover-up had already commenced, and this vital information was prohibited to flying personnel, my Flying Fortress crew of ten men and I were unprepared for the confrontation we were to meet with on that mission.

We could not have been prepared, of course, for battle with aerial weapons far advanced of ours, and as it turned out that was no problem. But for some way to get out of the dilemma into which my crew and I flew in our B-17, we had no mental and emotional readiness. We accomplished our mission, but it could be that we returned safely to our base more by luck than by our own training and ingenuity.

The 15th Air Force, operating long-range heavy bombers from airfields in southern Italy, flew at high altitudes far into Nazi-held Europe. The B-17s and B-24s destroyed strategic objectives - oil refineries, principally - bombing in great formations by day. Great Britain's big bombers of the Royal Air Force kept it incessant, night bombing the enemy, and he was allowed no respite.

The relentless onslaught was interrupted by the severe weather of late 1944 grounding the massive formations, so the 5th Bomb Wing initiated the Lone Wolf missions to harass the Nazis. B-17s were sent out singly to separate targets, causing minor damage as contrasted to the devastation wreaked by bomber formations, but keeping the German workers under constant air raid warnings and away from the refineries and factories. It was on such a Lone Wolf flight that we made our takeoff that November night.

As the pilot of "Old Crow," the B-17 I nearly always had on combat missions and called "my airplane," my intention was to push the big bird up just as high as she would go - 30,000 feet, at least. I had bombed at Salzburg one time and learned first hand that the Krauts there had master sergeants firing their antiaircraft guns. When we returned to our field at Amendola, the crew chief and I counted 240 flak holes in Old Crow. Miraculously, not an engine had been shot out, there had been no fires on board, and not a man on my crew was wounded. We were over Salzburg at 25,000 feet that day. Tonight, with me calling the shots, we would be much higher where the flak was not so ferocious, and we'd have better prospects of a good bomb strike and returning safely to home base.

My plans were changed on takeoff. I eased the four throttles to max power and we raced down the perforated steel runway with no trouble, but we were hardly airborne when one of the superchargers disintegrated. That meant that we could climb no higher than 18,000, much too low for Salzburg. The navigator, bombardier and I selected Klagenfurt for an alternate target. We .would blast the railroad yards at Klagenfurt and the freight cars loaded with war material that were marshalled there, and send the laborers to the air raid shelters for the night.

Old Crow reached 18,000 feet only from my patient coaxing. She was overloaded, carrying thousands of pounds of fuel, ammunition and bombs above the maximum gross weight that Boeing, her designer and manufacturer, had set. It surprised me that the loss of one of four superchargers made such a difference in her ceiling, but once I had nudged her up to 18,000 the stable old warrior mushed right along. The weather had improved considerably - there was a high overcast blackening the sky, but much of the time we were not in clouds and icing conditions. We flew a north-northwesterly course up the Adriatic Sea, and upon making a landfall at Trieste we had only a short distance to Klagenfurt.

The night was so dark that I was piloting Old Crow by instruments, but soon after turning on the bomb run and opening the bomb bay doors, we were in a blinding light. I felt the heat from it, and thought the Krauts had caught us in their searchlights, but it lasted only two or three seconds. We kept flying the bomb run, approaching the instant for bombs away, but I was relieved to see and feel no more of the light. I thought no more about it as this was the crucial moment of our mission, and I concentrated on maintaining a constant airspeed and keeping Old Crow flying straight and level, so the bombardier could put the bombs precisely on target.

Scan.

(Foo-Fighter, Continued)

Upon bombs away Old Crow leaped upward, freed of her ten 500 pound bombs, and I whipped her off the target, scurrying for safety. It was then I realized that we had gotten no flak on the bomb run; and where were the Messerschmidt night fighters? As much as we had disrupted their oil production, surely they had enough gas to fly fighters up to attack one lone B-17. Well, no need to tempt Fate, I knew. No flak and no fighters was peculiar, nevertheless - unprecedented.

Heading back toward Trieste, all at once there appeared just off our left wing a round amber light. None of us saw it approach or had any sight of it until it was right beside the B-17, flying along in formation with us. The object's outline was a perfect circle - too perfect; its color was a luminous orange-yellow - too luminous. We could only guesstimate its distance and size. To me, it looked to be about 50 yards out from the wingtip, 10 yards to the rear, and 10 feet in diameter. Was it 100 yards distant and 20 feet in diameter? I was aware of a fascination while observing it.

The gunners wanted to shoot whatever-it-was with their fifty calibers but I ordered them not to - if the thing was hostile, we would have been shot down without ever having seen it. As we coursed on through the black night, winging homeward to our, field in the south of Italy, the weird craft kept us company. Its position relative to Old Crow's did not vary, its shape did not change, and its brilliance never wavered. I was unable to ascertain the form of the bogey; it could have been a sphere, or a disk at 90 degrees to the earth's surface, but it definitely was not the exhaust or lights from another aircraft. It positively was neither manmade nor a natural occurrence. After 45 to 50 minutes, our companion from another world simply turned off. Precisely the way that an electric light goes out when turned off by flipping a switch, that is how the Foo Fighter disappeared — it turned off.

The rest of our return to Amendola was uneventful, and after landing and riding the truck from the field to 2nd Bomb Group Operations, an Intelligence officer conducted our debriefing. When we had reported the standard items of weather, the alternate target we hit, bomb, strike accuracy, and the fact that we encountered no enemy resistance, I mentioned the momentary light we flew into on the bomb run, and inquired whether there, were searchlights at Klagenfurt. No, ours was the first such report.

The description I gave of the amber object and its behavior met the quick explanation that it was a "New secret German fighter." To my answer that it did not shoot at us, the Intelligence officer rebutted that it was radioing our course, altitude and airspeed to the German antiaircraft batteries. When I reminded him that we had not seen one burst of flak the entire night, he said nothing more - he had run out of stock answers. He had told us all that he could tell.

The superior performance of American Intelligence in WWII was essential to our victory, but an unwise policy was the withholding from combat personnel of information about the Foo Fighters. When our confrontation occurred on that Lone Wolf mission, had we been forearmed with the knowledge reported to Intelligence previously, we would have reacted with more certainty and confidence. We, and other crews in similar encounters, could have disproved the false assumption that Foo Fighters were German weapons, and further assisted our war effort.

A more enlighted strategy concerning these early manifestations by the Foo Fighters, would have brought the dawn of our understanding the UFO phenomenon. The flash of light that struck our B-17 on the bomb run; the absence of German fighters and flak; the appearance and actions of the Foo Fighter; our receiving no interference with our bombing or other electronics - our calm discernment and reporting of such data to Intelligence would have been of inestimable value had they prepared us for it, and then listened to our reports. So, the most important products of the Lone Wolf mission to Klagenfurt were lost: improvement of combat effectiveness, and insight into visitations from another world. Multiply this by many, many UFO confrontations in World War II.

Decisions of truth and positive, action involve additional hazards, but danger is inherent in a program of deception. And who knows what perils are imbedded in the cover-up that continues to this day?

[Ref. wlt2:] WILLIAM D. LEET:

[...] my memory leaped back to November 24, 1944, when my B-17 crew and I were accosted by a Foo-Fighter on a Lone Wolf mission over Austria. Our Army Intelligence, notified by flight crews of numerous Foo-Fighter (UFO) encounters, did not see fit to relay the vital knowledge to the rest of us flying men. One result was the awe and confusion experienced by my B-17 crew and me when the Foo-Fighter joined our plane for a 50-minute fly-a-long. If I had permitted the gunners to shoot the Foo Fighter, as they wanted to do, it may well have been impervious to our 50 calibers while quite capable of destroying our Flying Fortress.

Another unfortunate result of Intelligence's taciturnity was the loss of any contribution to the understanding of UFOs we might have made if we had been supplied the information already acquired. Now, 7 years later, although I had learned nothing more about UFOs than a vague impression from reading Air Force Regulation 200-2 which ordered us to report them, [...]

[Ref. mas1:] NEWSPAPER "THE MARION STAR":

Scan.

Vexed by the things
out there in the sky

Bill Leet knew the minute he saw the strange luminous disc that his B-17 Flying Fortress would be no match for it.

"Our gunners wanted to shoot it down, but I ordered them not to. I told them if it was hostile, it would have already shot us down," he said.

"Let's just try to figure out what it is,' I told them."

Nearly 40 years later as he sits in a bedroom of his Texarkana, Ark, home that he has converted into an office, Leet explains that he is still trying to figure what he saw that night and what other alien craft cross the skies.

"I am vexed, literally vexed, that we do not know more than we do about this."

Today, we at least have names for them - flying saucers, or more broadly, unidentified flying objects. In 1944, no one had even coined a label.

Leet was a B-17 pilot based in Southern Italy during World War II. His squadron flew daily bombing missions on German oil refineries and railroad yards. It was a cold night In November when Leet and his crew set off alone across the Austrian Alps on a dangerous "lone wolf" raid on Salzburg.

"We were just scared to death. I think we were the only Allied aircraft over enemy territory that night," he recalled.

It hadn't helped their chances any when they lost a supercharger on takeoff. Without it, they couldn't climb much higher than 18,000 feet, which made them sitting ducks for the big German anti-aircraft guns around Salzburg.

So they diverted to Klagenfurt, some 100 miles closer, and less fortified than Salzburg. They made a surprisingly clean drop there and turned south inward home as soon as the bomb bay was empty.

"We didn't see one flak burst all night. Not one anti-aircraft shot was fired at us."

The unusually quiet skies gave the entire crew a perfect view of the visitor that suddenly appeared just off the tip of the left wing.

"This thing did not approach us from above or below or either side. It was just there, like a light switch being turned on."

"It wasn't like anything we had ever seen before. We couldn't see any third dimension to it. It was just a perfect circle. The closest thing I've ever seen to it is the amber light on a traffic signal. But it didn't look like any earthly light." Whatever it was, it stayed alongside the B-17 for about 45 minutes. Then, "like a light switch being turned off," it was gone.

Leet reported the Incident to an Air Force Intelligence officer, and was told that what he had seen was a new German secret weapon. Leet wasn't really convinced, but didn't dwell on it. The war would end soon, and as the years went by, he forgot about the strange light.

Until eight years later, when he was co-pilot on a C-47 transport plane carrying troops on leave from the Korean War battlefields to Japan. By that time, "UFO" had become a familiar expression, and when Leet and his co-pilot spotted a dull, metallic sphere flying alongside the C-47, they knew it was no Communist secret weapon.

Leet began to talk to other airmen and learned that quite a few of them had sighted flying objects that they could not explain. After Korea, he had little interest in returning to his law practice in Lexington, Ky., already twice interrupted by war.

He returned anyway, but did more and more research on UFOs. As his interest became known around the community, he was asked to speak to various groups. The news media soon began calling, and then in the late 1950s, he hosted a local television program on which he would interview guests who had had UFO experiences.

The program ran nearly three years, but all the publicity did little for his livelihood. People might be curious about what he had to say, but they had doubts about hiring a lawyer who saw strange things in the sky.

"It just killed my law practice. The last few months I was there, I didn't make one dollar, not one dollar. Back then, I was really standing naked before the multitudes."

In the early 1960s, he moved on and found work in the aeronautic Industry. His first wife died in 1971, and when he remarried in Fort Worth, his new wife Helen made him promise to bring her back to her hometown Texarkana, Ark.

They moved here three years ago. Today Leet spends much of his time writing. He has one book out - a dramatized history of the exploits of World War II pilots called "To Rule the Sky" - and a 350-page pictorial history of Texarkana that he complied for the Texarkana Historical Museum is at the publishers now.

But UFOs remain his obsession. He believes that the security of the United States rests upon its ability to develop the technology involved in what are commonly called flying saucers.

"I am convinced that UFO activity is the most phenomenal of all phenomena today."

He said the U.S. government's refusal to acknowledge the existence of UFOs is not any sinister plot to deceive the American people, but more likely an effort to keep military study of UFO technology hidden from the Soviet Union. "Despite the secrecy, I believe 95 percent of all Americans have an open mind on the subject. Polls show that more than half of Americans believe In UFOs."

Leet is Arkansas director of the Mutual Unidentified Flying Object Network, an International organization that compiles reports of UFO sightings. He is trying to find a publisher for a book he is writing titled "What? You Haven't Seen A Flying Saucer?" and subtitled "How To Sight A UFO and What to Do When You See One."

He has spoken at two recent meetings of the Texarkana Optimist Club, and enjoys lecturing. He said his comments on UFOs are received less skeptically today than when he first began talking on the subject more than 20 years ago.

He attributes most of that to a more educated populace, and said that movies like "Star War," "Hangar 18" and "Close Encounters of the Third Kind" have stimulated interest in UFOs. However, he seldom goes to such films and never watches television's "Star Trek" because of Hollywood's tendency to sensationalize such offerings.

"You should never mix fact and fiction concerning UFOs."

[Photo caption:] Bill Leet is certain we are not alone.

[Ref. nwd1:] NEWSPAPER "NEWS WORLD":

Scan.

The B-17 and the 'Foo Fighter'

One pilot's story of how UFO tailed WWII planes

By William D. Leet
SPECIAL TO THE NEWS WORLD

[Photo caption:] Author Bill Leet (left) shakes hands with his brother Warren Leet from the cockpit of his plane. Bill Leet is one among many bomber pilots who saw UFOs they called "Foo Fighters" following their planes during World War 11.

On that cold, dark night or November 24, 1944, when my 8-17 crew and I were briefed to fly a "Lone Wolf" bombing mission to Salzburg, no mention was made or "Foo fighters." The officer who gave us the intelligence part of the briefing listed the number or heavy and light antiaircraft guns we could expect at the target and what types and how many German fighters might hit us. We were also given the figures for alternate targets, in case of inability to reach the primary target which was the railroad marshalling yards at Salzburg. We were also briefed on escape routes and procedures to follow if we should be shot down so we could parachute safely to the ground and have a chance to make it back to Allied lines.

[Insert] I was unable to ascertain the form of the bogey; it could have been a sphere, or a disk at 90 degrees to the earth's surface, but it definitely was not the exhaust or lights from another aircraft. It positively was neither man-made nor a natural occurrence.

There was no mention whatsoever in the briefing that there was a chance or our encountering a Foo fighter. Kenneth Arnold's sighting or the first "flying Saucers" had yet to occur, and years would pass before Captain Edward Ruppelt's coining of the term "UFO," but our Intelligence people knew very well that the Foo Fighters were real. Intelligence officers interrogated pilots and crews after combat missions, and had received numerous accounts of the unearthly craft over Europe and the Pacific. As the UFO cover-up had already commenced. and this vital information was prohib11ed to flying personnel, my Flying Fortress crew of ten men and I were unprepared for the confrontation we were to experience on that mission. The 15th Air force, operating long range heavy bombers from airfields in southern Italy, flew at high altitudes far into Nazi-held Europe. The B-17s and B-24s destroyed strategic objectives - oil refineries, principally - bombing in great formations by day. Great Britain's big bombers of the Royal Air force kept it incessant, night-bombing the enemy, and he was allowed no respite.

"Lone Wolf bombing missions"

The relentless onslaught was interrupted by the severe weather of late 1944 grounding the massive formations, so the 5th Bomb Wing initiated the Lone Wolf missions to harass the Nazis. B-17s were sent out singly to separate targets, causing minor damage as contrasted to the devastation wrecked by bomber formations, but keeping the German workers under constant air raid warnings and away from the refineries and factories. It was on such a Lone Wolf night that we made our takeoff that November night. As the pilot of "Old Crow," the B-17 I nearly always had on combat missions and called "my airplane," my intention was to push the big bird up just as high as she would go - 30,000 feet, at least. I had bombed at Salzburg once and learned first hand that the Krauts there had master sergeants firing their antiaircraft guns. When we returned to our field at Amendola, the crew chief and I counted 240 flak holes in Old Crow. Miraculously, no engine had been shot out, there had been no fires on board, and not a man on my crew was wounded. We were over Salzburg at 25,000 feet that day. Tonight, with me calling the shots, we would be much higher where the flak was not so ferocious, and we had have better prospects of a good bomb strike and returning safely to home base. My plans were cha11t1ed on takeoff. I eased the four throttles to max power and we raced down the perforated steel runway with no trouble, but we were hardly airborne when one or the superchargers disintegrated. That meant that we could climb no higher than 18,000, much too low for Salzburg. The navigator, bombardier and I selected Klagenfurt for an alternate target. We would blast the railroad yards that were marshalled there, and send the laborers to the air raid shelters for the night. Old Crow reached 18,000 feet only from my patient coaxing. She was over-loaded, carrying thousands of pounds or fuel, ammunition and bombs above the maximum gross weight that Boeing, her designer and manufacturer, had set. It surprised me that the loss of one of four superchargers made such a difference in her ceiling, but once I had nudged her up to 18,000 the stable old warrior mushed right along. The weather had improved considerably - there was a high overcast blackening the sky, but much or the time we were not in clouds and icing conditions. We flew a north northwesterly course up the Adriatic Sea, and upon making a landfall at Trieste we had only a short distance to Klagenfurt.

The night was so dark that I was piloting Old Crow by instruments, but soon after turning on the bomb run and opening the bomb bay doors, we were in a blinding light. I felt the heat from it, and thought the Krauts had caught us in their searchlights, but it lasted only two or three seconds. We kept flying the bomb run, approaching the instant for bombs away, but I was relieved to see and feel no more of the light. I thought no more about it as this was the crucial moment of our mission, and I concentrated on maintaining a constant airspeed and keeping Old Crow flying straight and level, so the bombardier could put the bombs precisely on target.

Upon bombs away Old Crow leaped upward, freed or her ten 500-pound bombs, and I whipped her off the target, scurrying for safety. It was then I realized that we had gotten no flak on the bomb run; and where were the Messerschmitt night fighters? As much as we had disrupted their oil production, surely they had enough gas to fly fighters up to attack one lone B-17. Well, no need to tempt Fate, I knew. No flak and no fighters was peculiar, nevertheless - unprecedented.

Weird craft appears off wingtip

Heading back toward Trieste, all at once there appeared just off our left wing a round amber light. None of us saw it approach or had any sight of it until it was right beside the B-17, flying alone in formation with us. The object's outline was a perfect circle - too perfect; its color was a luminous orange-yellow - too luminous. We could only guesstimate its distance and size. To me, it looked to be about 100 yards out from the wingtip, 10 yards to the rear, and 10 feet in diameter. Was it 100 yards distant and 20 feet in diameter? I was aware of a fascination while observing it.

The gunners wanted to shoot whatever-it-was with their 20-calibers but I ordered them not to - if the thing was hostile we would have been shot down without ever having seen it. As we coursed on through the black night, winging homeward to our field in the south of Italy, the weird craft kept us company. Its position relative to Old Crow's did not vary, its shape did not change, and its brilliance never wavered. I was unable to ascertain the form of the bogey; it could have been a sphere, or a disk at 90 degrees to the earth's surface, but it definitely was not the exhaust or lights from another aircraft. It positively was neither man-made nor a natural occurrence. After 45 or 50 minutes, our companion from another world simply turned off - precisely the way an electric light goes out when turned off by flipping a switch. That is how the Foo Fighter disappeared - it turned off.

Stock answers don't wash

The rest of our return to Amendola was uneventful, and after landing and riding the truck from the field to 2nd Bomb Group Operations, an Intelligence officer conducted our debriefing. When we had reported the standard items of weather, the alternate target we hit, bomb strike accuracy, and the fact that we encountered no enemy resistance, I mentioned the momentary light we flew into on the bomb run, and enquired whether there were search lights at Klagenfurt. No, ours was the first such report.

The description I gave of the amber object and its behavior met the quick explanation that it was a "New secret German fighter." To my answer that it did not shoot at us, the Intelligence officer rebutted that it was radioing our course, altitude and airspeed to the German antiaircraft batteries. When I reminded him that we had not seen one burst of flak the entire night, he said nothing more - he had run out of stock answers. He had told us all that he could tell.

The superior performance of American lntelligence in WWII was essential to our victory, but an unwise policy was the withholding from combat personal information about the Foo Fighters. When our confrontation occurred on that Lone Wolf mission, had we been forarmed with the knowledge reported to Intelligence previously, we would have reacted with more certainty and confidence. We, and other crews in similar encounters, could have disproved the false assumption that Foo Fighters were German weapons, and further assisted our war effort.

A more enlightened strategy concerning these early manifestations by the foo fighters would have brought the dawn of our understanding the UFO phenomenon. The flash of light that struck our B-17 on the bomb run: the absence of German fighters and flak; the appearance and actions of the Foo Fighter; our receiving no interference with our bombing or other electronics - our calm discernment and reporting of such data to Intelligence would have been or inestimable value and they prepared us for it, and then listened to our reports. So, the most important products of the Lone Wolf mission to Klagenfurt were lost: improvement of combat effectiveness. and insight into visitations from another world. Multiply this by many, many UFO confrontations in World War II.

Decisions of truth and positive action involve additional hazards, but danger is inherent in a program of deception. And who knows what perils are imbedded in the cover-up that continues to this day.

[Ref. apo1:] THE APRO BULLETIN:

WW II 'FOO FIGHTERS'

The following is excerpted from a story by William D. Leet which appeared in the February 17, 1983, edition of the New York News World.

On that cold, dark night of November 24, 1944, when my B-17 crew and I were briefed to fly a "Lone Wolf" bombing mission to Salzburg, no mention was made of "Foo Fighters." Intelligence officers interrogated pilots and crews after combat missions, and had received numerous accounts of the unearthly craft over Europe and the Pacific. As the UFO cover-up had already commenced, and this vital information was prohibited to flying personnel, my Flying Fortress crew of 10 men and I were unprepared for the confrontation we were to experience on that mission.

As the pilot of "Old Crow", the B-17 I nearly always had on combat missions, my intention was to push the big bird up as high as she would go - 30,000 feet at least. My plans were changed on takeoff when one of the superchargers disintegrated. This meant that we could climb no higher than 18,000 feet, much too low for Salzburg. The navigator, bombardier and I selected Klagenfurt for an alternate target. The night was so dark that I was piloting Old Crow by instruments, but soon after turning on the bomb run and opening the bomb bay doors, we were in a blinding light. I felt the heat from it, and thought the Krauts had caught us in their searchlights, but it lasted only 2 or 3 seconds. We kept flying the bomb run and I was relieved to see and feel no more of the light.

Heading back toward Trieste, all at once there appeared just off our left wing a round amber light. None of us saw it approach or had any sight of it until it was right beside the B-17, flying along in formation with us. The object's outline was a perfect circle - too perfect; its color was a luminous orange-yellow - too luminous. It looked to be about 1 00 yards out from the wingtip, 10 yards to the rear and 10 feet in diameter.

As we coursed on through the black night, winging homeward to our field in the south of Italy, the weird craft kept us company. It's position relative to Old Crow's did not vary, its shape did not change and its brilliance never wavered.

I was unable to ascertain the form of the bogey; it could have been a sphere, or a disk at 90 ° to the earth's surface, but it definitely was not the exhaust or lights from other aircraft. It positively was neither man-made nor a natural occurrence. After 45 or 50 minutes, our companion from another world simply turned off - precisely the way an electric light goes out when turned off by flipping a switch. That is how the Foo Fighter disappeared - it turned off.

During debriefing, the Intelligence officer explained that the amber object was a "new secret German fighter." To my answer that it did not shoot at us, the Intelligence officer rebutted that it was radioing our course, altitude and airspeed to the German antiaircraft batteries. When I reminded him that we had not seen one burst of flak the entire night, he said nothing more - he had run out of stock answers.

The superior performance of American Intelligence in WW II was essential to our victory, but an unwise policy was the withholding from combat personnel information about the Foo Fighters. We, and other crews in similar encounters, could have disproved the false assumption that Foo Fighters were German weapons, and further assisted our war effort. Decisions of truth and positive action involve additional hazards, but danger is inherent in a program of deception. And who knows what perils are imbedded in the cover-up that continues to this day?

[Ref. lwr1:] DR. LOUIS WINKLER:

Scan.

1944 Nov 24/Germany/MUJ ( n. 133), Lore-Deneault

A blinding red amber light was seen for a few sec. and its heat could be felt inside the airplane. Then a 10 ft. diam. disc appeared 50 yd. off a wing moving to a position 10 yd. to the rear. The object paced the airplane for 45-50 min. and suddenly went out.

[Ref. rhl1:] RICHARD H. HALL:

Every major war in modern times has included UFO sightings at the scene of combat. The "foo-fighters" of World War II were the first widely reported UFOs of the 20th Century.

William D. Leet, late Arkansas State Director for the Mutual UFO Network, was a bomber pilot during World War II. On a "lone wolf" bombing mission over Klagenfurt, Austria, November 24, 1944, he and his B-17 crew were on their bomb run when the plane suddenly was caught in a blinding light for 2-3 seconds, and Leet felt a sensation of heat. If it had been searchlights, the Germans would not have broken off contact. They completed the bomb run safely, en-countering no flak, and turned to scurry back to their home airfield in Amendola, Italy.

All at once a round, amber light appeared off the left wing of the B-17, showing a perfectly circular outline, and paced alongside the plane for about 45 minutes before abruptly vanishing. During debriefing, Leet was informed that no searchlights were known to be at Klagenfurt. The intelligence officer suggested that the amber disc was a new German fighter or remote control device radioing position information to anti-aircraft guns, but Leet replied that the object did not fire at them, nor had they encountered any flak.

[Ref. ivl1:] ILLOBRAND VON LUDWIGER:

This German ufologist reported that a luminous orange-yellow disk about 3 m in diameter was observed by USAF Major Leet, over Klagenfurt, Austria. It kept a distance of about 50 m, and followed the B-17 almost all the way back from a bombing run on November 24, 1944. The sphere seemed to follow the maneuvers of the aircraft for 45 minutes.

The author indicates that the source is "Leet 1979".

[Ref. gvo1:] GODELIEVE VAN OVERMEIRE:

1944, December

AUSTRIA, Klagenfurt

Major Leet aboard a B-17 bomber also observed an amber disk which seemed to follow the maneuvers of the plane, flying above Klagenfurt. (Michel BOUGARD: "La chronique des OVNIS" – Delarge 1977- p. 271)

[Ref. lhh1:] LARRY HATCH:

519: 1944/11/24 22:00 8 14:18:00 E 46:38:00 N 3332 WEU AUS STY 8:9
B17/KLAGENFURT,AUSTRIA:LITE+HEAT:ORG.SCR PACES >>SW:NO FLAK:/r46p193+/r25p197
Ref#210 The APRO BULLETIN. (J & C Lorenzen) Volume 31 Issue 7: IN-FLIGHT

[Ref. nck1:] NICK COOK:

Seemingly, the spooks couldn't provide any plausible explanation for what they were either, as the following account, by Major William Leet, a B-17 pilot attached to the U.S. 15th Air Force, indicated after a nighttime encounter with a foo-fighter - "a small amber disc" - that followed his bomber all the way from Klagenfurt, Austria, to the Adriatic Sea in December 1944. "The intelligence officer that debriefed us stated it was a new German fighter but could not explain why it did not fire at us or, if it was reporting our heading, altitude and airspeed, why we did not receive antiaircraft fire," he reported.

[Ref. jck1:] JEROME CLARK:

The author indicates that years later after the incident, William D. Leet, who had been a major with the 15th Air Force, 5th Wing, 2d Bomb Group, recalled his own unnerving experience:

"My B-17 crew and I were kept company by a 'foo-fighter,' a small amber disc, all the way from Klagenfurt, Austria, to the Adriatic Sea. This occurred on a lone wolf mission at night, as I recall, in December 1944 .... The intelligence officer who debriefed us stated that it was a new German fighter but could not explain why it did not fire on us or, if it was reporting our heading, altitude, and airspeed, why we did not receive anti-aircraft fire."

[Ref. dwn2:] DOMINIQUE WEINSTEIN:

Case 60

November 24, 1944

Above Klagenfurt, Austria

William D. Leet (pilot) and the crew of a USAAF B-17 (15th Air Force, 5th Wing, 2nd Bomb group) flying for a "lone wolf' bombing mission when their aircraft was suddenly caught in a blinding light for 2 to 3 seconds and Leet felt a sensation of heat. They completed the bomb run safely, encountering no flak, and turned to scurry back to their home airfield at Amendola in Italy. All at once a round, amber light off the left wing of the B-17, showing a perfectly circular outline, and paced alongside the plane for about 45 minutes before abruptly vanishing. During his debriefing, the pilot as informed that no German searchlights were known to be at Klagenfurt. The intelligence officer suggested that the amber disc was a new German fighter or a remote control device radioing position information to anti aircraft guns, but the pilot replied that the object did not fire on them, nor had they encountered any flack.

Sources: To rule the sky, Lou Jagues & William D. Leet, 1979 / The Flying fortress and the Foo-fighter, William D. Leet, MU FON UFO Journal, 1979: Strange companies, Keith Chester, 2007

[Ref. sua1:] WEBSITE "SATURDAY NIGHT UFORIA":

Twenty-two years later, in his 1979 book To Rule the Sky, pilot William Leet would describe his November, 1944 experience flying his plane, the "Old Crow", on a "lone wolf" mission from his base in Italy to bomb the railway yards at Klangenfurt [sic]. That same year he would also pen the article The Flying Fortress and the Foo Fighter for the MUFON UFO Journal...

The night was so dark that I was piloting Old Crow by instruments, but soon after turning on the bomb run and opening the bomb bay doors, we were in a blinding light. I felt the heat from it, and thought the Krauts had caught us in their searchlights, but it lasted only two or three seconds. We kept flying the bomb run, approaching the instant for bombs away, but I was relieved to see and feel no more of the light. I thought no more about it as this was the crucial moment of our mission, and I concentrated on maintaining a constant airspeed and keeping Old Crow flying straight and level, so the bombardier could put the bombs precisely on target.

Upon bombs away Old Crow leaped upward, freed of her ten 500 pound bombs, and I whipped her off the target, scurrying for safety. It was then I realized that we had gotten no flak on the bomb run; and where were the Messerschmitt night fighters? As much as we had disrupted their oil production, surely they had enough gas to fly fighters up to attack one lone B-17. Well, no need to tempt Fate, I knew. No flak and no fighters was peculiar, nevertheless -- unprecedented.

Heading back toward Trieste, all at once there appeared just off our left wing a round amber light. None of us saw it approach or had any sight of it until it was right beside the B-17, flying along in formation with us. The object's outline was a perfect circle -- too perfect; its color was a luminous orange-yellow -- too luminous. We could only guestimate its distance and size. To me, it looked to be about 50 yards out from the wingtip, 10 yards to the rear and 10 feet in diameter. Was it 100 yards distant and 20 feet in diameter? I was aware of a fascination while observing it.

The gunners wanted to shoot whatever-it-was with their fifty calibers but I ordered them not to -- if the thing was hostile we would have been shot down without ever having seen it. As we coursed on through the black night, winging homeward to our field in the south of Italy, the weird craft kept us company. Its position relative to Old Crow's did not vary, its shape did not change, and its brilliance never wavered. I was unable to ascertain the form of the bogey; it could have been a sphere, or a disk at 90 degrees to the earth's surface, but it definitely was not the exhaust of lights from another aircraft. It positively was neither manmade nor a natural occurrence. After 45 to 50 minutes, our companion from another world simply turned off. Precisely the way that an electric light goes out when turned off by flipping a switch, that is how the Foo Fighter disappeared -- it turned off.

[Ref. rpl1:] ROBERTO PINOTTI AND ALFREDO LISSONI:

These Italian ufologists indicate that during the Second World War, according to case studies collected by ufologists, mysterious foofighters have been seen on several occasions by military pilots, including a UFO on November 24, 1944, which chased an American B-17 plane out of Klagenfurt, Austria, to the Adriatic Sea.

(Ref. nip1:) "THE NICAP WEBSITE":

(1944) Nov. 24, 1944; Northern Italy

Round amber light, luminous orange-yellow, blinding light; felt unbearable heat. (Page 89-93 Ref.1)

The reference 1 is described at the end of the document as "Strange Company (2007), Keith Chester".

(Ref. nip1:) "THE NICAP WEBSITE":

(1944) Dec. 1944; Austria

B-17 pilot (William D. Leet) and crew, on a lone wolf mission, were followed by an amber-colored disc. (NICAP UFO Evidence, 1964, Hall, III)

[Ref. tai1:] "THINK ABOUT IT" WEBSITE:

Date: 1944

Location: Austria, Klagenfurt

Time:

Summary: Major Leet, a bomber pilot, saw a luminous disc follow his plane anf his maneuvers.

Source:

The case had this double entry:

Date: Nov. 24, 1944

Location: Northern Italy

Time:

Summary: Round amber light, luminous orange-yellow, blinding light; felt unbearable heat.

Source:

And it was entered a third time:

Date: Dec. 1944

Location: Austria

Time:

Summary: B-17 pilot (William D. Leet) and crew, on a lone wolf mission, were followed by an amber-colored disc.

NICAP UFO Evidence, 1964, Hall, III

[Ref. get1:] GEORGE M. EBERHART:

1944

[... other cases...]

November 24

Capt. William D. Leet's B-17 crew (part of the 2nd Bombardment Group, 5th Wing of the Fifteenth Air Force) is returning from bombing a target at Klagenfurt, Austria. While flying over northeastern Italy near Trieste, Leet notices a blinding light and feels an intense heat. It goes away quickly, but seconds later he sees a "round amber light" sitting off the left wingtip of the B-17. It is bright and perfectly circular. Leet orders the gunners not to shoot at it. Sgt. Harris, the upper gunner, thinks it is 10 feet in diameter and 150 300 feet away. The object stays with them over the Adriatic Sea for 50 minutes, until it "just turned off" like a light bulb. (Strange Company 90 - 93)

[... other cases...]

Aircraft information:

The US B-17 "Flying Fortress" was a heavy bomber fitted with five 7.62 machine guns for its defense against enemy fighter planes.

B-17 formation.

Discussion:

I kept the place "Klagenfurt" in the title of this file, because the case is known as such; but it is obvious that the observation had a first step on Klagenfurt and a second which began "returning towards Trieste" and with the phenomenon remaining with the B-17 for 45 minutes; therefore on Italy and the Adriatic sea.

Map.

It was obviously necessary to check what the situation of the Moon was during the observation.

On November 24, 1944 at night, the Moon was in the sky, but in a waning gibbous phase with 67.4% of the surface illuminated. There is thus little change that it was seen as "a perfect circle".

At midnight UTC, the moon was visible in the direction 258°, almost due west. Now, the plane was on its way back to Amendola to the South, and the UFO is clearly reported to have been towards the left wing of the plane. The Moon would have been off the right wing.

Evaluation:

Possible extraterrestrial craft.

Sources references:

* = Source is available to me.
? = Source I am told about but could not get so far. Help needed.

File history:

Authoring:

Main author: Patrick Gross
Contributors: None
Reviewers: None
Editor: Patrick Gross

Changes history:

Version: Create/changed by: Date: Description:
0.1 Patrick Gross November 28, 2023 Creation, [nsb1], [wlt1], [jve1], [bph1], [vgs1], [gld1], [lgs1], [jcf1], [mbd1], [mun1], [wlt2], [mas1], [lwd1], [nwr1], [rhl1], [ivl1], [gvo1], [lhh1], [lwr1], [apo1], [nck1], [jck1], [dwn2], [rpl1], [nip1], [tai1], [get1].
1.0 Patrick Gross November 28, 2023 First published.
1.1 Patrick Gross January 21, 2024 Addition [sua1].

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