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The 1954 French flap:

The index page for the 1954 French flap section of this website is here.

September 16, 1954, Savigny, Rhône:

Reference number for this case: 16-Sep-54-Savigny. Thank you for including this reference number in any correspondence with me regarding this case.

Summary:

An article in the national newspaper Paris-Presse for September 29, 1954, on page 2 reported that Mr. René Valéry, artistic director of the Olympia (in Paris), balanced man who did not believe in flying saucers so far, had filmed one last week from his property in Savigny, a few kilometers from Lyon.

He had the idea to look up to the sky and remained dumbfounded when seeing "a sort of metallic point moved slowly above him without making the slightest noise of engine nor the slightest whistling of jet engine." It trailed behind "a huge tail of smoke unless it was a frozen wake like that left in the air by jet planes."

Mr. Valéry ran to his house, took his 8mm camera and filmed the craft.

The newspaper specified that the sky was blue, and the light excellent, and that the film "must be good"; it has been sent to development, and "will be ready the day after tomorrow."

An article in the regional newspaper Var-Matin - République of Toulon, for September 30, 1954, reported that Mr. René Valery, artistic director of the Olympia de Paris, who was in Lyon, had confirmed to this newspaper that he and his wife had seen a curious "cigar" on September 16, 1954, in Savigny. He was quoted saying:

"It was around 6 p.m. We were walking around, when we saw a craft at about 700 or 800 m of altitude, it was going up vertically without any sound of engine noise."

"Behind it, it left a trail of white smoke. I think it could not have been a jet plane, whose whistling sound I would have perceived because of its proximity. Actually this cigar had not at all the shape of a jet plane."

The newspaper indicated that Mr. Valery did not seem ready to admit, despite the testimony of his senses, that he had seen a flying saucer. But he had an 8mm movie camera, and he filmed the object. He was supposed to go on Thursday get his film developed, and so to discover whether he and his wife had been "the victims of an hallucination or if, on the contrary, it was indeed one of these famous saucers."

It was also said that the visibility had not been very good and that he feared he may have missed "his saucer".

Unfortunately, nothing more seems to have been learned about that. Other newspapers, including Italian newspapers, had reported the case, but no image seems to have surfaced. Of course, while it was easy at the time to publish a photo in a newspaper, it was not so easy to publish images from an 8 mm movie.

The newspaper gave the "Thursday 16" September 1954 as the date of observation. But the other newspapers, mostly published on September 30, 1954, gave no precise date, and the case then appeared in the ufology literature as dated approximately September 27, 1954.

Reports:

[Ref. ppe1:] "PARIS-PRESSE" NEWSPAPER:

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PARIS BY NIGHT

A "flying cigar"
was filmed

by Jean-François DEVAY

We may have the truth about flying cigars on Thursday. One of them was filmed.

The happy filmmaker is Mr. René Valéry, the artistic director of the Olympia. He is a balanced man, very surprised by his discovery. Until now, he did not believe in flying saucers.

Mr. René Valéry was last week on his property in Savigny, a few kilometers from Lyon when he had the idea of ??looking up to the sky: he remained dumbfounded...

A sort of metallic spot moved slowly over him without making the slightest noise of engine or the least whistling of reactor. It trailed a huge tail of smoke behind her, unless it was a frozen wake like that left in the air by jet planes.

As a realistic Lyon resident, Mr. Valéry immediately understood that nobody would believe him unless... he ran to his house, came back with his camera and filmed the strange craft.

The sky was blue, the light excellent... the film must be good! The technicians are optimistic:

- With an 8mm camera like that of Mr. Valéry, one can obtain a very clear image of an airplane, "if it is not too far".

The film has been sent to development, it will be ready the day after tomorrow. Mr. Valéry awaits it with a beating heart.

[Ref. jps1:] "LE JOURNAL DU PAS-DE-CALAIS ET DE LA SOMME" NEWSPAPER:

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The flying saucers
seem to indulge
to a real
CARROUSEL
over France

In the sky
of the Dauphiné

Lyon, 29. -- In the departments of Rhône, Isère, Drôme and Savoie, many people claim to have seen, in recent days, with more or less clarity, craft having either the shape of cigars, or that of discs.

In the Arbresle region, one of these witnesses, director of a Parisian music hall, even filmed one of these mysterious craft which was moving at a height estimated by him at around 700 meters. We will thus know, after development of the film, whether or not it is an optical illusion.

Near Feyzin (Isère), a young man would reportedly saw in the countryside, not far from the ground, a craft in the shape of a dome and from which a very bright light gushed out, comparable to that caused by the combustion of magnesium. The craft suddenly went up vertically, leaving behind a shower of sparks and disappeared.

In the Drôme, a resident of Valence, Mrs. L... who was walking near Chabeuil, claims to have met in the path that she followed, a small being dressed so oddly that she thought at first that it was a cellophane scarecrow.

The dog accompanying the walker barked furiously, overcome with terror. As for Mrs. L..., also terrified, she hid behind a hedge.

It was then that she saw rising from the maize field which bordered the path, a disc from which emitted a whistling sound. Shortly after, the witness and some peasants went into the field where, according to them, a circular trace approximately 3 meters in diameter was clearly distinguished, with ears of corn lying down and broken branches at the edge.

Other residents of Chabeuil also reported having

CONTINUED ON PAGE 6

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FLYING
SAUCERS

A cultivator sees
come towards him
an "interplanetary
diver"...

Châtellerault, 29. -- Mr. Yves David, 28, a farmer in Brouloux, commune of Vouneuil-sur-Vienne, said he saw advancing towards him, on the road from Cenon to Vouneuil, on September 19 at 10 p.m., a kind of "diver."

The latter, he said, came to caress his arm, made unintelligible sounds and withdrew towards a craft (which Mr. David cannot describe). A green light beam was projected in his direction, freezing him on the spot, then the craft disappeared in the sky, vertically, without any noise.

Mr. David said he didn't want to say anything about this bizarre encounter for fear of being laughed at. He did, however, share it with a friend, asking if anyone else had seen the "diver."

This is how the country found out.

In the sky
of the Dauphiné

Continued from the first page)

spotted a flying saucer flying over the countryside that day.

Finally, in Savoy, near Lac du Bourget, above Mont Revard, several motorists, a total of fifteen people, simultaneously saw a disc-shaped craft move for about four minutes, then suddenly disappear.

One of the witnesses, a doctor from Chambéry, is a former artillery observer. He carefully noted the observations and drew a sketch reproducing the path of the mysterious apparatus.

[Ref. cpd1:] "LE COURRIER PICARD" NEWSPAPER:

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Aerial carousel
of flying saucers
in the Dauphiné

In the Ille-et-Vilaine, on the other hand
the driver of a locomotive
falls ill at the sight of one of these craft

LYON, September 30. -- In the departments of Rhône, Isère, Drôme and Savoie, many people claim to have seen, in recent days, with more or less clarity, craft having either the shape of cigars or that of discs.

In the Arbresle region, one of these witnesses, director of a Parisian music hall, even filmed a of these mysterious craft which evolved at a height estimated by him at around 700 meters. We will thus know, after development of the film, whether or not it is an optical illusion.

Near Feyzin (Isère), a young man reportedly saw in the country, not far from the ground, a machine having the shape of a dome and from which came a very bright light.

The witness compared it to that caused by the combustion of magnesium. The craft suddenly went up vertically, leaving behind a shower of sparks and disappeared.

In the Drôme, a resident, Mrs. L... who was walking near Chabeuil, claims to have met, in the path that she followed, a small being dressed so oddly that she thought at first that it was a cellophane scarecrow.

The dog accompanying the walker barked furiously, overcome with terror. As for Mrs. L..., also terrified, she hid behind a hedge.

It was then that she saw rising from the cornfield which bordered the path, a disc from which came a whistling sound. Shortly after, the witness and some peasants went into the field where, according to them, a circular trace approximately 3 meters in diameter was clearly distinguished, with ears of corn lying down and broken branches at the edge.

Other residents of Chabeuil also said they saw a flying saucer that day.

Finally, in Savoy, near Lac du Bourget, above Mont Revard, several motorists, a total of fifteen people, simultaneously saw a craft moving for about four minutes in the shape of a disc, -tes [sic], then suddenly disappear.

Continued at the 2nd page under the title:

FLYING SAUCERS

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Flying saucers

(Continued from the 1st page)

One of the witnesses, a doctor from Chambéry, is a former artillery observer. He carefully noted the observations and drew a diagram reproducing the path of the craft.

In the Ille-et-Vilaine

MM. Gérard, mechanic, and Paroux, driver, who were driving a high-speed machine coming from Nantes, saw, last night, while they were passing at a place called "La Butte du Rouge", commune of Saint-Nicolas-de-Redon (Ille-et-Vilaine) a craft which rose from the neighboring marshes.

This contraption, of some length, which was followed by a luminous trail, flew during ten seconds above the machine and disappeared in the sky.

Whereas the mechanic kept calm, the driver, however, was frightened, he fell ill and had to undergo a medical examination this morning.

An "interplanetary diver" appears to a farmer

Mr. Yves David, 28, a farmer in Brouloux, commune of Vouneuil-sur-Vienne, said he saw advancing on him, on the road from Cenon to Vouneuil, on September 10 at 10 p.m., a kind of "diver".

The latter, he said, came to caress his arm, uttered unintelligible sounds and withdrew towards a craft (that Mr. David cannot describe). A green beam of light was projected in its direction, nailing him on the spot, then the craft disappeared in the sky, vertically, without any noise.

Mr. David declares that he did not want to say anything about this bizarre encounter, lest someone makes fun of him. However, he shared it with a friend, asking him whether other people had seen the "diver". That's how the whole country learned about this.

Luminous objects in the sky of Roussillon

A baker from Canet-Plage, said that when he returned from a delivery tour with his van, he saw above this locality, a brilliant disc which, after having flown in large circles, moved away towards the sea.

Also seven workers from a factory in the suburbs of Perpignan claim to have also seen an object of indefinite color evolving at high speed; which reportedly crossed the Pyrenees towards Spain.

In Haute-Garonne

Three residents of Lanta, near Villefranche-de-Lauraguais (Haute-Garonne), Mr. and Mrs. Brunet, and Mr. Gadra, local school teacher, say they saw an orange disc yesterday evening above the village.

The object moved at a great height and moved in a north-south direction.

After being visible for thirty to forty seconds, the luminous disc disappeared on the horizon.

[Ref. nnm1:] "LE NOUVEAU NORD MARITIME" NEWSPAPER:

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Real carousel
of aerial saucers
flying in the sky
of the Dauphiné

Lyon, September 30. -- In the departments of Rhône, Isère, Drôme and Savoie, many people claim to have seen, in recent days, with more or less clarity, craft having either the shape of cigars or that of discs.

In the Arbresle region, one of these witnesses, director of a Parisian music hall, even filmed one of these mysterious craft which evolved at a height estimated by him at around 700 meters. We will thus know, after development of the film, whether or not it is an optical illusion.

Near Feyzin (Isère), a young man reportedly saw in the countryside, not far from the ground, a craft in the shape of a dome and from which sprang a very bright light. The witness compared it to that caused by the combustion of magnesium. The device suddenly went up vertically, leaving behind a shower of sparks and disappeared.

In the Drôme, a resident, Mrs L... who was walking near Chabeuil, says to have met in the path which it followed, a being of small size dressed so oddly that she believed at first that it was a scarecrow in cellophane. The dog accompanying the walker barked furiously, overcome with terror. As for MrsL..., also terrified, she hid behind a hedge.

It was then that she saw rising from the cornfield which bordered the path, a disc from which came a whistling sound. Shortly after, the witness and some peasants went into the field where, according to them, a circular trace of about 3 meters in diameter was clearly distinguished with ears of corn lying down and broken branches at the edge.

Other residents of Chabeuil also said they saw that day a flying saucer flying over the countryside.

Finally, in Savoy, near the Bourget lake, above Mont Revard, several motorists, a total of fifteen people, simultaneously saw a craft in the shape of a disc, move for about four minutes, then suddenly disappear.

One of the witnesses, a doctor from Chambéry, is a former artillery observer. He carefully noted the observations and drew a sketch reproducing the path of the mysterious apparatus.

[Ref. nmn1:] NEWSPAPER "NORD-MATIN":

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Real aerial carousel
of "flying saucers"
in the sky of France

The testimonies are multiplying about the flying saucers. In various French departments, many people claim to have seen, in recent days, with more or less clarity, craft in either the shape of cigars or that of discs.

In the Arbresle region, the director of a Parisian music-hall even filmed one of these mysterious craft which moved at a height estimated by him at around 800 meters. We will thus know, after development of the film, whether or not it is an optical illusion.

Near Feyzin (Isère), a young man reportedly saw in the countryside, not far from the ground, a craft in the shape of a dome and from which sprang a very bright light. The witness compared it to that caused by the combustion of magnesium. The craft suddenly went up vertically, leaving behind a shower of sparks and disappeared.

In the Drôme, a resident of Valence, Mrs. L., who was walking near Chabeuil, claims to have met in the path that she followed, a small being dressed so oddly, that she first thought it was a scarecrow of cellophane. The dog accompanying the walker barked furiously, overcome with terror. As for Mrs. L ..., also terrified, she hid behind a hedge.

The ears were laid
over three meters

It was then that she saw rising from the maize field that bordered the path, a disc from which came a whistling sound. Shortly after, the witness and some peasants went into the field where, according to them, a circular trace of about 3 meters in diameter was clearly distinguished with ears of maize lying down and broken branches on the edge.

Other residents of Chabeuil also said they saw that day a flying saucer flying over the countryside.

In Savoie, near Lake Bourget, above Mont Revard, several motorists, a total of fifteen people, have seen simultaneously a craft in the form of a disc, move for about four minutes, then suddenly disappear.

One of the witnesses, a doctor from Chambéry, is a former artillery observer. He carefully noted the observations and drew a sketch reproducing the path of the mysterious apparatus.

An "interplanetary
diver" said to have appeared
to a farmer

Also, Mr. Yves David, 28, farmer in Les Brouloux, commune of Vouneuil-sur-Vienne (Vienne), said he saw advance on the road from Cenon to Vouneuil on September 19 at 10 p.m. a kind of diver.

The latter, he said, came to caress his arm, made unintelligible sounds and withdrew towards a craft (which Mr. David cannot describe). A green light beam was projected in his direction, nailing him on the spot, then the craft disappeared in the sky, vertically, without any noise.

Mr. David states that he did not want to say anything about this bizarre encounter, lest someone makes fun of him. He did, however, share it with a friend, asking if anyone else had seen the "diver." This is how the whole country found out.

At the sight of a saucer
flying, a locomotive driver
gets sick

We should also point out that MM. Gérard, mechanic and Paroux, driver, who were driving a high-speed machine from Nantes, saw on Tuesday evening, as they passed by a place called "la butte du rouge", commune of Saint-Nicolas-de-Redon (Ille-et-Vilaine), a craft that rose from the neighboring marshes.

This contraption, of a certain length, which was followed by a luminous trail flew during

Read more on the last page
under the title:
SAUCERS

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SAUCERS

ten seconds above the machine and disappeared into the sky.

Whereas the mechanic kept his cool, the driver, however, was so frightened that he fell ill and had to undergo a medical examination yesterday morning.

A luminous sphere
photographed
in the sky of Sweden

A luminous sphere, which left a trail of fire behind it, was photographed in Bjuv, in the south-east of Sweden. The object, which was moving north, said the witness, was flying fast, "as high, he said, as a jet plane, but without making any noise".

At the Lund observatory, it is stated that no meteor was observed at the time when the witness photographed the phenomenon in question on telephoto.

... and one in the open sea

Less recent but more impressive, is the account of the captain of the "Groote Beer", Mr. J.-P. Boahoff, of the Holland - United-States line.

Detected in the open sea and observed by himself and his five officers using all the optical equipment on board, it was the size of a half-moon and also circular and bright.

The captain formally excluded the possibility that it may be a weather balloon.

At first motionless, the disc, after a few moments, moved west to disappear behind the clouds at an altitude of about 14,000 meters.

[Ref. vmr1:] "VAR-MATIN REPUBLIQUE" NEWSPAPER:

In the manner of Wells heroes

A farmer in the Vienne saw advancing towards him an interplanetary diver

In the Lyonese, a Parisian filmed a "flying cigar"

Châtellerault, September 29 -. Mr. Yves David, 28-year-old, farmer in Broudoux, community of Verneuil-sur-Vienne, stated to have seen advancing towards him, on the road from Cenon to Vouneuil, on September 19 at 10 p.m., a kind of diver.

The latter, he says, came to caress his arm, emitted unintelligible sounds and withdrew towards a craft (that Mr. David cannot describe). A green beam of light was projected in his direction, nailing him on the spot, then the machine disappeared in the sky vertically, without any noise. Mr. David states that initially he did not want to tell anything of this weird encounter for fear of ridicule. He however informed a friend of his, asking him whether other people had seen the "diver". That's how the country knew about it.

Air carrousel in the Lyonese

Lyon, September 29. -- Between September 15 and 20, several people in the Lyons area, announced to have seen flying saucers. A 15-year-old young man, Mr. Roland M... says: "On the 15th at approximately 11 p.m., I was within approximately 200 meters of the fort of Feyzin (the Isère) when my attention was caught by a white light. I was then amazed to see, detached in the sky, ten meters above the ground, a dark spot from where a sharp light similar to the combustion of a magnesium spot emerged."

The black "shape" seemed slightly elliptic.

Arrived at about fifty meters of this "space ship", I was amazed to hear a deaf noise like that of a wet rocket, I even saw at the same time a shower of sparks spout out of the lower part of the craft. Then all of a sudden, like a rocket, it rose at a tremendous speed, perhaps 4000 or 5000 km/h." In addition, residents of Chaudelas [sic] (the Ardeche) saw on September 17 in the sky, a craft of the shape of a torpedo with the front more luminous than the rest. Was it of an aerolith or an interplanetary apparatus? It will never be known. Lastly, in Lyons, Mrs. J T... indicates that on the 18th at 3:55 a.m., she saw a craft which went back in the sky vertically at a vertiginous pace.

Another testimony, perhaps the most important, was provided to us by Mr. René Valery, artistic director of the Olympia in Paris. Mr. Valery was in Lyon and he stated to us that he had, as well as his wife, sighted a curious "cigar" whereas they were, on Thursday 16, in Savigny, in the Rhone. "It was approximately 6 p.m., he told us. We were walking, when we saw a craft at approximately 700 or 800 m of altitude. It went up vertically without the least engine noise."

Behind it, it left a broad trail of white smoke. It could not be a matter, in my opinion, he still told us, of a jet plane, I would have heard the whistling sound, because of the proximity of the machine. Moreover, this cigar had by no means the shape of a jet."

Mr. Valery, who does not seem to be able to admit, in spite of the testimony of his senses, that he saw a flying saucer, was carrying an 8 mm movie camera. He hastened to film the evolutions of the aerial object.

Perhaps he will know Thursday, while going to get his developed film, if he were as well as his wife, the subject of an hallucination or if, on the contrary, it was really of one of these famous saucers. He waits for Thursday without impatience, the more so as the visibility was not very good and that he fears to have perhaps missed his "saucer".

Let us add that the saucers are not an invention of our century. Indeed, an extract of the memories of the Emulation society of the Jura, for 1864, under the title "Flaming globes" reports the following lines:

"On January 20, 1859 at 04:35 a.m., by a rather strong rain, but a calm and a very black night, the atmosphere was suddenly illuminated by a very bright white light which made it possible to distinguish from far away the objects with a great accuracy. This light was due to a luminous sphere slipping through space from the south to the north, at a great speed. Large numbers of people who, frightened, left their house, believed in a fire. This phenomenon was seen from Lyon to Strasbourg." [Perfect description of a meteor.]

Four other observations of this kind, but less remarkable, are noted on the registers at the following dates: January 10, 1847, November 13 and 17, 1848, and August 11, 1850.

"They must be distinguished from the incandescent spheres which are seen during storms [ball lightning], since their appearance always takes place by a calm weather, without detonation and giving a sharp light."

At the sight of a flying saucer, a locomotive driver falls sick.

MM. Gérard, mechanic and Paroux, driver, who led a wildcat locomotive engine, coming from Nantes, saw yesterday evening, whereas they passed by the location "La Butte Rouge", community of St Nicolas-de-Redon (the Ille and Vilaine), a machine which rose from nearby marshes. This machine, of a certain length, which was followed of a luminous trail, flew during ten seconds above the locomotive and disappeared in the sky. Whereas the mechanic kept his cool, the driver on the other hand, was so frightened that he fell sick and had to undergo a medical examination this morning.

[Ref. lme1:] "LE MERIDIONAL" NEWSPAPER:

Carrousel of "saucers" in the sky of Dauphiné

LYON. -- In the departments of the Rhone, Isère, Drôme and Savoy, many people claim to have seen, these last days, with more or less clarity, craft having either the shape of cigars, or those of discs.

In the area of the Arbresle, one of these witnesses, director of a music-hall, stated to have filmed one of these mysterious apparatuses which evolved at a height estimated by him as of approximately 700 meters. One will thus know, after development of the footage, if it was or was not an optical illusion.

Close to Feyzin (the Isère) a young man is said to have seen in the countryside, not far from the ground, a machine having the shape of a dome from where spouted out a very sharp light. The witness had compared it with that caused by the combustion of magnesium. The craft, suddenly, went up vertically while leaving a shower of sparks and disappeared.

Inhabitants of Chabeuil stated to have seen a flying saucer evolving above the countryside.

Lastly, in Savoy, close to the lake of Le Bourget, above Mount Revard, several motorists, on the whole about fifteen people, simultaneously saw an apparatus having the shape of a disc, that evolved during approximately four minutes, to then disappear suddenly.

One of the witnesses, a doctor of Chambéry, is a former artillery observer. He carefully wrote up the observations and drew a diagram reproducing the travel of the mysterious apparatus.

A "SAUCERS" FOLLOWS A TRAIN IN THE ILLE-ET-VILAINE...
The drivers gets ill

REDON (Ille-et-Vilaine). -- Misters Gérard, mechanic, and Paroux, driver, who operated a wildcat engine coming from Nantes, saw, whereas they passed at the locality "La Butte Rouge", community of Saint-Nicolas-de-Besson (Ille-et-Vilaine), a machine which rose from the nearby marshes.

This craft, of a certain length, which was followed of a luminous trail, flew during ten second above the machine and disappeared in the sky.

While the mechanic preserved all his calm, the driver, on the other hand, was so frightened that he fell sick and had to pass a medical examination yesterday morning.

DUTCH TESTIMONYS ON AERIAL PHENOMENA

LA HAYE. -- The aerial phenomena which currently appears above Europe did not fail to visit the Netherlands.

Among the recently reported testimonies on the passage of flying saucers above the Dutch territory, it is necessary to quote that of a citizen of Schiedam (an important center of juniper production) which claimed to have seen a rather large object, circular and luminous, moving towards the west. Its fiancée who accompanied him corroborated his statements.

Less recent but more impressive, is the account of the captain of "Grote Beer" Mr J.-P. Boshoff, of the Holland - United States line.

The object detected on the open sea and observed by himself and his five officers using all the optical equipment on board, was the "size of a half-moon" and also circular and luminous.

The captain adamantly excluded the possibility that it can be a weather balloon.

Initially motionless, the disc, after a few moments, moved towards the west to disappear behind the clouds at an altitude of approximately 14.000 meters.

[Ref. cdn1:] "LA CROIX DU NORD" NEWSPAPER:

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Cigars, discs, saucers in numbers...

A real carousel
from Lille to the South of France
where two "Martians" were seen

Either the most skeptical will soon have to face the facts, or we are currently witnessing a curious phenomenon of collective hallucination from Sweden to the South of France..., unless it is a matter of a vast farce. Everywhere cigars and discs crisscross the sky. They even made a victim in the Redon region. Messrs Gérard, mechanic and Paroux, driver, who were driving a high-speed locomotive from Nantes, saw Tuesday evening, as they passed through the town of Saint-Nicolas-de-Redon, "a craft that rose from neighboring swamps." Whereas the mechanic remained calm, the driver, however, was so frightened that he fell ill and had to undergo a medical examination Wednesday morning. Twice, on the other hand, "Martians" have been seen.

The first, a kind of "diver", was reportedly seen on the road from Cenon to Vouneuil (Vienne) on September 9, 10 p.m., by Mr. Yves David, 23 years old, farmer in the town.

The "diver" came to caress his arm, emitted unintelligible sounds and withdrew towards a craft that Mr. David could not describe and which disappeared silently in the sky while projecting a green luminous beam.

The second "Martian" was very small and oddly dressed. He was reportedly seen by a resident of Valence who was walking near Chabeuil (Drôme). Mrs. L. clarified that she first thought she saw a cellophane scarecrow. The accompanying dog barked furiously, overcome with terror. Mrs. L. then saw rising from the cornfield which bordered the road, a disc from which came a whistling sound. Local peasants claim that there is a circular trace of about 3 meters, with lying ears of corn and broken branches at the edge.

Continued on the last page,
in the third column, under the title
"SAUCERS"

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SAUCERS

Filmed saucer

In addition to these exceptional encounters, there is a real aerial carousel in the sky of the Dauphiné.

In the departments of Rhône, Isère, Drôme and Savoie, many people claim to have seen, in recent days, with more or less clarity, craft having either the form of cigars or those of discs.

In the Arbresle region, one of these witnesses, director of a Parisian music hall, even filmed one of these mysterious craft which was evolving at a height estimated by him at around 700 meters. We will thus know, after development of the film, whether or not it is an optical illusion.

And everywhere we claim to have seen saucers: that makes a total of at least a hundred testimonies.

The Southeast is not the only sector affected by the "invasion". Similar descriptions are reported from the regions of Toulouse and Perpignan.

Finally, a luminous sphere is said to have been photographed Tuesday evening in Bjuv, in the south-east of Sweden.

EVEN IN LILLE...

In the vast international saraband of saucers, the Nord region has recently featured with the adventure of Quarouble. In good capital, Lille could not stay behind. Yes, laugh good people... Lille now also has its saucer or cigar... unless it is a disc.

About twenty people from Lille - everyone knows they are reasonable people and hardly subject to hallucinations - saw Wednesday evening, around 8:30 p.m., a mysterious craft which moved in the sky. Always the same green glow and the same silence.

The observers of one evening were gathered near the Porte de Béthune.

One can laugh, one can call people jokers or more wickedly hallucinated... these facts happen all the same very often and in many latitudes. April's Fool lasts only 24 hours.

And let us hope that the "Martians" - if Martians there are - are understanding and peaceful. Otherwise beware! because they seem to have strong aviation.

[Ref. vdn1:] "LA VOIX DU NORD" NEWSPAPER:

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Flying
saucers
in all
the skies
of France?

An amateur filmmaker
reportedly filmed
one of the craft

A rain of flying saucers crossed all the skies of France for a few days, that of the Dauphiné in particular, where a real aerial carousel has attracted the attention of many observers.

In the Rhône, Isère, Drôme and Savoie departments, many people claim to have seen, in recent days, with more or less clarity, craft in the shape either of cigars, or of discs.

One of these witnesses, director of a Parisian music hall, said that he had filmed a mysterious craft which was moving at a height estimated by him at around 700 meters. We will thus know, after development of the film, whether or not it is an optical illusion.

In the Drôme, a resident of Valence, Mrs. L ..., who was walking by Chabeuil, claims to have met in the path she was following, a short being, strangely dressed in some sort of cellophane.

She saw a maize field bordering the edge of the path, a whistling disc. Shortly after, the witness noticed in the field a circular trace of about 3 meters in diameter with lying ears and broken branches. Other residents of Chabeuil confirmed these observations.

Finally, in Savoy, fifteen people simultaneously saw a craft in the shape of a disc move for about four minutes.

One of the witnesses, a former artillery observer, drew a sketch reproducing the path of the mysterious craft.

***

A baker from Canet-Plage, Mr. Etienne Err, said that after returning from a delivery tour with his van, he had seen above this locality, a brilliant disc which, after having followed large circles, moved away in direction of the sea. Seven workers of a factory of the Perpignan suburbs confirmed his statements.

***

Three residents of Lanta, near Villefranche-de-Lauraguais (Haute-Garonne), Mr. and Mrs. Brunet, and Mr. Gadra, local teacher, say they saw, last night, for 30 to 40 seconds, above the village, a bright orange disc.

[Ref. nll1:] NEWSPAPER "NORD LITTORAL":

Scan

A REAL AERIAL
CAROUSEL OF SAUCER
is observed in the sky of the Dauphiné

Lyon, September 29.

In the departments of Rhône, Isère, Drôme and Savoie, many people claim to have seen, in recent days, with more or less clarity, craft having either the shape of a cigars or that of discs.

In the Arbresle region, one of these witnesses, director of a Parisian music-hall, even filmed a of these mysterious craft which moved at a height estimated by him, approximately 700 meters. We will thus know, after development of the film whether or not it is an optical illusion.

Near Feyzin (Isère), a young man reportedly saw in the countryside, not far from the ground, a craft in the shape of a dome and from which sprung is a very bright light. The witness compared it to that caused by the combustion of magnesium. The craft suddenly went up vertically, leaving behind a shower of sparks and disappeared.

In the Drôme, a resident of Valence, Mrs. L..., who was walking near Chabeuil, claims to have met on the way that she was following, a being of small stature and dressed so oddly that at first thought it was a cellophane scarecrow. The dog accompanying the walker barked furiously, overcome with terror. As for Mrs. L..., also terrified, she hid behind a hedge.

It was then that she saw rising from the field of maize that bordered the path, a disc from which came a whistling sound. Shortly after, the witness and some peasants went into the field where, according to them, a circular trace approximately three meters in diameter was clearly distinguished, with ears of maize lying down and broken branches at the edge.

Other residents of Chabeuil also said they saw that day a flying saucer flying over the countryside.

Finally, in Savoie, near Lac du Bourget, above Mont Revard, several motorists, a total of fifteen people, simultaneously saw a craft in the shape of a disc, move for about 4 minutes, then suddenly disappear.

One of the witnesses, a doctor from Chambéry, is a former artillery observer. He carefully noted the observations and drew a sketch reproducing the path of the mysterious apparatus.

A LOCOMOTIVE DRIVER
SCARED,
FALLS ILL

Redon, Sept. 29

MM. Gérard, mechanic and Paroux, driver, who were driving a high-speed machine coming from Nantes, saw last night as they passed at a place called "La Butte du Rouge", commune of Saint-Nicolas-de-Redon, (Ille-et-Vilaine), a craft that rose from the neighboring marshes.

This craft, of a certain length, which was followed by a luminous trail, flew during ten seconds above the machine and disappeared in the sky.

Whereas the mechanic kept his cool, the driver however was so frightened that he fell ill and had to undergo a medical examination this morning.

Read on page 8: The Chronicle of Heaven.

Scan

Chronicle of the Sky

A luminous sphere
photographed
in the sky of Sweden

Stockholm, September 29.

- A luminous sphere, which left a trail of fire behind it, was photographed last night in Bjuv, in the south-east of Sweden. The object, which was moving north, said the witness, was flying quickly, "as high, he said, as a jet plane but silenttly."

At the Lund observatory, it is stateed that no meteor was observed at the time when the witness photographed the phenomenon in question on the telephoto lens.

LUMINOUS OBJECTS
IN THE SKY
OF THE ROUSSILLON...

Perpignan, Sept. 29 -- A baker from Canet-Plage, Mr. Etienne Err, said that after returning from a delivery tour with his van he had seen, above this locality, a brilliant disc which, after having described large circles, moved away towards the sea.

On the other hand seven workers from a factory in the suburbs of Perpignan claim to have also seen an object of an indefinite color, moving at high speed and which would have crossed the Pyrenees towards Spain.

... AND IN THE SKY
OF HAUTE-GARONNE

Toulouse, 29 Sept. -- Three inhabitants of Lanta, near Villefranche de Lauraguais (Haute-Garonne), Mr. and Mrs. Brunel and Mr. Gadra, a teacher in the locality, claim to have seen, last night, above the village, a luminous disc of orange color.

The object moved at a great height and moved in a north-south direction.

After being visible for 30 to 40 seconds, the luminous disc disappeared on the horizon.

AN "INTERPLANETARY
DIVER"
APPEAR
TO A CULTIVATOR

Châtellerault, 29 Sep. -- Mr. Yves David, 28, farmer in Les Brouloux, commune of Vouneuil sur Vienne (Vienne), said he saw advancing on him on the road from Cenon to Vouneuil, on September 19 at 10 p.m. a sort of "diver."

The latter, he said, came to caress his arm, emitted unintelligible sounds and withdrew towards a craft (which Mr. David cannot describe). A green light beam was projected in his direction, nailing him on the spot, then the craft disappeared in the sky vertically without any noise.

Mr. David declares that he did not want to say anything about this bizarre encounter, lest someone make fun of him. He did, however, share it with a friend, asking if anyone else had seen the "diver." That's how the whole country found out.

[Ref. ner1:] NEWSPAPER "NORD-ECLAIR":

Scan

Mysterious craft

In two places, the appearance of a saucer was told by the witnesses with a precision that makes it difficult to doubt that they were mistaken.

This is how near Redon, Mssrs. Gérard, mechanic and Paroux, driver, drove a fast locomotive down from Nantes, when they saw, Tuesday evening, when they passed at a place called "La Butte du Rouge", commune of Saint-Nicolas-de-Redon (Ille-et-Vilaine), a craft that rose from the close marshes.

This craft, of some length, which was followed by a luminous trail, flew during ten seconds above the machine and disappeared in the sky.

Whereas the mechanic kept his cool, the driver, on the other hand, was so frightened that he fell ill and had to undergo a medical examination yesterday morning.

In Savoy, near Lac du Bourget, above Mont Revard, several motorists, in total around fifteen people, saw simultaneously a craft in the form of a disc, move for about 4 minutes, then suddenly disappear.

One of the witnesses, a doctor from Chambéry, is a former artillery observer. He carefully noted the observations and drew a sketch reproducing the path of the mysterious apparatus.

FILMED SAUCER
IN THE ALPS...

In the departments of Rhône, Isère, Drôme and Savoie, many people claim to have seen in recent days, with more or less clarity, craft having either the form of cigars or that of discs.

In the Arbresle region, one of these witnesses, director of a Parisian music hall, even filmed a of these mysterious craft which moved at a height estimated, by him, to be around 700 meters. We will thus know, after development of the film, whether or not it is an optical illusion.

[Ref. ads1:] "L'ARDENNAIS" NEWSPAPER:

FLYING "CIGARS" AND "SAUCERS" PERFORMED QUITE AN AERIAL CARROUSEL IN THE SKY OF THE DAUPHINE

LYON - In the Rhône. Isère, Drôme and Savoy departments, many people claim to have seen, these last days, with more or less sharpness, craft having either the shape of cigars or that of disks.

In the region of the Arbresle, one of these witnesses, director of a Paris music hall, even filmed one of these mysterious craft that was evolving at a height estimated by him at about 700 meters, so we will know, after development of the film, whether or not it is an optical illusion.

Near Fezin (Isère) a young man reportedly saw a dome-shaped craft in the countryside, not far from the ground from where a very bright light sprang up. The witness compared it to that caused by the burning of magnesium. The craft suddenly climbed vertically leaving behind a shower of sparks and disappeared.

The pilot: a small person, dressed oddly

In the Drôme, a resident of Valence, Mrs. L... who was walking near Chabeuil, said to have met in the path she followed a being of small size who was dressed so oddly that she thought at first that it was a cellophane scarecrow. The dog that accompanied the walker barked furiously, in terror. As for Mrs. L..., also terrified, she hid behind a hedge.

It was then that she saw a disk rising from the cornfield along the road, whistling. Shortly thereafter, the witness and some peasants went to the field where, according to them, there was clearly a circular trace of about 3 meters in diameter with corn stalks laid down and broken branches on the edge.

(See more at the 6th page)

"Cigars" flying...

(Continued from the first page)

Other residents of Chabeuil also said they saw a flying saucer flying over the countryside that day.

Finally, in Savoy, near the Lake of the Bourget, above Mount Revard, several motorists, in total about fifteen people, saw simultaneously a craft having the shape of a disc, moving for about four minutes, then disappearing suddenly.

One of the witnesses, a doctor from Chambéry, is a former artillery observer. He carefully noted the observations and drew a diagram reproducing the path of the mysterious apparatus.

An "interplanetary scuba diver" near Châtellerault

Mr. Yves David, 28, farmer at the Brouloux, municipality of Vouneuil-sur-Vienne (Vienne) said he saw advance at him on the road from Cenon to Vouneuil on September 19 at 10 p.m. a kind of "scuba diver".

The latter, he said, came to caress his arm, uttered unintelligible sounds and withdrew to a craft (which Mr. David cannot describe). A green light beam was projected in his direction, nailing him on the spot, then the craft disappeared vertically in the sky without any noise.

Mr. David declares that he did not want to say anything about this strange encounter, lest anyone scoff at him. He told a friend, however, asking if other people had seen the "scuba diver". This is how the whole country learned about it...

Bright object in the Roussillon sky...

PERPIGNAN - A baker from Cannet-Plage, Mr. Err, said that when he returned from a delivery tour with his pickup truck, he saw above this locality a brilliant disc which, after having flown in large circles, moved towards the sea. Also, seven workers of a factory of the suburb of Perpignan claim to have also seen an object of an indefinite color, moving at high speed, and which would have crossed the Pyrenees towards Spain.

... And in the sky of the Haute-Garonne

Three inhabitants of Lanta, near Villefranche-de-Lauragais (Haute-Garonne), Mr. and Mrs. Brunet and Mr. Gadra, teacher of the locality, claim to have seen last night, above the village, a luminous disc of orange color. The object was moving at a great height and was moving north south.

After being visible for 30 to 40 seconds, the luminous disc disappeared on the horizon.

[Ref. lqh1:] NEWSPAPER "LE QUOTIDIEN DE LA HAUTE-LOIRE:"

MULTIPLE SIGHTINGS OF FLYING CIGARS

In the departments of the Rhone, of Isère, Drome and Savoy, many people clain to have seen, these last days, with more or less of clarity, crafts having either a cigar shape, or a disc shape. In the area of Arbresle, one of these witnesses, the director of a Parisian variety theater, even filmed one of these mysterious crafts. So we will know, after development of the film, if it is an optical illusion. Close to Fezin (Isère), a young man is said to have seen a machine having a dome and from where a light comparable with that caused by the combustion of magnesium spouted out in the countryside not far from the ground. In the Drome, an inhabitant of Valence Miss Leboeuf, which was having a walk near Chabeuil, claims to have met in a pathway, a being of small size oddly dressed which she first believed to be a scarecrow in Cellophane. Miss Leboeuf hid behind a hedge, terrified. At this point in time she saw a disc from where a whistle emanated rising from a corn field. A little later the witness and peasants went in the field where, according to them, a circular trace approximately three meters in diameter with corn ears lying and branches broken in edge was clearly distinguished. Other inhabitants of Chabeuil also stated to have seen there a flying saucer evolving above the countryside on the same day.

[Ref. lbl1:] "LA BAILLEULOISE" NEWSPAPER:

Scan

- There are numerous reports of "flying saucers and cigars" at Marcoing, Annoeullin, Abbeville, La Chapelle d'Armentières, etc... All the testimonies are consistent. At Marcoing the whole gerndarmerie observed the phenomenon.

- There are reports of the appearance of numerous saucers in the Rhône Valley and the Perpignan region. A woman is said to have been accosted by a small being who appeared to be dressed in a kind of cellophane. An observer reportdedly filmed a saucer and awaits the development of the photo.

[Ref. hws1:] HAROLD T. WILKINS:

The author indicates that in the Pyrénees, in France, in September 1954, the director of a Parisian cabaret saw a saucer 2297 feet up, and with presence of mind, photographed it.

[Note: Wilkins indicates September 30 for other cases, it is the date of their report in the press, not their observation date.]

[Ref. via1:] "VIMANA 21" UFOLOGY BULLETIN:

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 30: CARROUSEL OF FLYING SAUCERS IN THE SKY OF FRANCE -

One of the craft was reportedly filmed.

Lyon - In the departments of the Rhone, Isère, Savoie, Drome, many people claim to have seen, in recent days, with more or less sharpness, craft having either the shape of cigar, or of disk.

In the Arbresle region (the Rhône), one of these witnesses, director of a Parisian music hall, even filmed one of these mysterious apparatuses, which moved at a height estimated by him at about 700m. We will know, after development, whether or not it is an optical illusion.

Near Feyzin (the Isère) a young man reportedly saw in the countryside, not far from the ground, a craft shaped like a dome and from which a very bright light burst out. The witness compared it to that caused by the burning of magnesium. The apparatus suddenly climbed vertically leaving behind it, a shower of sparks and disappeared.

In the Drôme, a resident of Valence, who was walking near Chabeuil, claims to have encountered, in the path she followed, a small being, dressed so oddly that she first thought it was a scarecrow in cellophane. The dog that accompanied the walker barked furiously, seized with terror. As for her, terrified as well, she hid behind a hedge. That's when she saw rise from the maize field that bordered the road, a disc from which came a hissing sound.

Shortly thereafter, the witness and the peasants went to the field where, according to them, a round trace of about 30 meters diameter, with maize lying down and branches broken at the edge. Other residents of Chabeuil also said they saw that day, a flying saucer moving over the countryside.

Finally, in the Savoy, near the Bourget Lake, above Mount Revard, several motorists, fifteen people, saw simultaneously a craft in the shape of a disc, move for about 4 minutes then disappear suddenly. One of the witnesses, a doctor in Chambéry is a a former artillery observer, he carefully noted the observations and drew a sketch reproducing the path of the mysterious apparatus.

The source is said to be the newspaper Le Bien Public.

[Ref. lgs1:] LOREN GROSS:

Loren Gross reproduced this newspaper article without giving its source:

CARROUSSEL OF FLYING SAUCERS
in the sky of France

One of the craft was reportedly filmed

Lyon, September 29. -- In the departments of Rhône, Isère, Drôme and Savoy, many people claim to have seen in recent days, with more or less clarity, craft either in the shape of cigars or in the shape of discs.

In the region of Arbresles (Rhône), one of these witnesses, director of a Paris music hall, even filmed one of these mysterious apparatuses that moved at a height estimated by him at about 700 meters. We will thus know after development of the film whether or not it is an optical illusion.

Near Feyzin (Isère), a young man reportedly saw in the countryside, not far from the ground, a machine in the shape of a dome and from which a very bright light sprang forth. The witness compared it to that caused by the burning of magnesium. The craft suddenly climbed vertically leaving behind a shower of sparks and disappeared.

In the Drôme, a resident of Valence, Mrs. L... who was walking near Chabeuil, claims to have met in the path she followed, a being of small size dressed so oddly that she thought at first that it was a cellophane scarecrow. The

Continued on 12th page.

dog that accompanied the walker barked furiously in terror. As for Mrs. L... also terrified, she hid behind a hedge.

It was then that she saw rising from the corn field that bordered the road, a disc whence emanated a hissing sound. Shortly after, the witness and some peasants went to the field where, according to them, a circular trace of about three meters in diameter was clearly visible, with maize laid on the ground and broken branches on the border.

Other residents of Chabeuil also said that on that day they saw a flying saucer flying over the countryside.

Finally in Savoie near Lake Bourget, above mount Revard, several motorists, in total about fifteen people, saw simultaneously a craft with the form of a disc molve for about four minutes, then suddenly disappear.

One of the witnesses, a doctor from Chambéry, is a former artillery observer. He carefully noted the observations and drew a sketch reproducing the path of the mysterious craft.

In the Southwest

Perpignan, September 29. -- A baker from Canet-Plage, Mr. Etienne Err, said that after returning from a delivery tour with his van, he had seen above this locality, a brilliant disc which, after having described large circles, moved towards the sea.

On the other hand, seven workers from a factory in the suburbs of Perpignan claim to have also seen an object of an indefinable color moving at high speed, and which would have crossed the Pyrenees towards Spain.

***

Toulouse, September 29. -- Three inhabitants of Lanta, near Villefranche-de-Lauraguais (Haute-Garonne), Mr. and Mrs. Brunet and Mr. Gadra, teacher of the locality, affirm they saw, yesterday evening, above the village, a luminous disk of orange color.

The object was moving at a great height and was moving north-south.

After being visible for thirty to forty seconds, the luminous disc disappeared on the horizon.

At the sight of a "saucer" a locomotive driver falls ill

Rennes, September 29th. - MM. Gérard, a mechanic, and Paroux, a chauffeur, who drove a top-of-the-line machine from Nantes, spotted last night as they passed the place called "La Butte du Rouge", municipality of Saint-Nicolas de Redon (Ille-et-Vilaine), a craft that rose from neighboring marshes.

This craft of some length which was followed by a luminous train flew for about ten seconds above the machine and disappeared in the sky.

If the mechanic kept his composure, the driver was so frightened that he fell ill and had to get a medical examination this morning.

[Ref. rlt1:] RENAUD LECLET - CNEGU:

L'Ardennais, Thursday 30 September 1954. (Page 1)

"FLYING CIGARS" AND "SAUCERS" PERFORMED A REAL AERIAL CARROUSEL IN THE SKY OF THE DAUPHINE

LYON - In the departments of Rhône, Isère, Drôme and Savoie, many people claim to have seen, in recent days, with more or less clarity, craft either in the shape of cigars, or of disks.

In the region of the Arbresle, one of these witnesses, director of a Parisian music hall, even filmed one of these mysterious craft that moved at a height estimated by him at about 700 meters, we will know thus, after developing the film, whether or not it is an optical illusion.

[... Other cases...]

[Ref. jbs1:] VINCENTE-JUAN BALLESTER-OLMOS, FOTOCAT 1954:

(51)

DATE:27 September 1954 (approximate day)
PLACE:Savigny, Rhone department France)
FORMAT:Movie
PHOTOGRAPHER:Bene Valery
EXPLANATION:Not available
REFERENCES:Italian newspapers: Il Mattino (Naples) and Corriere di Sicilia (Catania), September 29, 1954, Giornale di Trieste (Trieste), Giornale del Mattino (Florence) and La Nazione Italiana), September 30, 1954, Il Gazzettino (Trento) and Il Mattino, October 1, 1954, and Milano Sera (Milano), October 1-2, 1954. Harold T. Wilkins, Flying Saucers Uncensored (The Citadel Press, 1955), pages 229-230. Donald Johnson’s UFOCAT.
REMARKS:Nil

[Ref. lcn1:] LUC CHASTAN:

Luc Chastan indicates in his database that in the Rhone in Savigny on September 16, 1954 at 18:00 hours "a couple walks when they observe at an altitude estimated as 700 or 800 m a kind of cigar going up vertically without noise. A broad white trail is visible."

The source is indicated as "Var Matin".

[Ref. jbs2:] VINCENTE-JUAN BALLESTER-OLMOS, FOTOCAT 1954:

(58)

Date:27 September 1954 (approximate day)
Time:Daytime
Place:Savigny, Rhône (France)
Format:Movie
Photographer:René Válery
Explanations:Not available
References:L'Ardennais, 30 September 1954, page 1, in Renaud Leclet, Les Mystères de l'Est, 8, 2003, page 48. Italien newspaper Corriere Lombardo (Milano) 9-10 October 1954, page 6. Harold T. Wilkins, Flying Saucers Uncensored (Citadel, New York, 1955), pages 229-230. Loren Gross, UFOs: A History. 1954: September (Fremont, California, 1991), page 77. Giuseppe Stilo, Il quinto cavallere dell'Apoclisse (UPIAR, Milano, 2006), page 11.
Remarks:Nil

[Ref. ubk1:] "UFO-DATENBANK":

This database recorded the same case twice.

Case Nr. New case Nr. Investigator Date of observation Zip Place of observation Country of observation Hour of observation Classification Comments Identification
19540916 16.09.1954 Savigny France 18.00 NL
19540927 27.09.1954 Savigny France

Explanations:

To date I did not find in the press any new information about the developed film; the articles were published before it was developed.

Two explanations come to mind from the description given of the craft: a meteor, or a jet plane.

A jet plane is perhaps more plausible than a meteor since Mr. Valéry had the time to go inside his house and come out again with his movie camera.

Boeing RB-47 Stratojet.

Due to the lack of reliable and precise information, no explanation is guaranteed, of course.

Keywords:

(These keywords are only to help queries and are not implying anything.)

Savigny, Rhône, couple, cigar, silent, trail, photograph, white, ascent

Sources:

[----] indicates sources which I have not yet checked.

Document history:

Version: Created/Changed by: Date: Change Description:
1.0 Patrick Gross June 16, 2009 First published.
1.1 Patrick Gross April 8, 2010 Addition [jbs1].
1.2 Patrick Gross January 29, 2017 Addition [ubk1].
1.3 Patrick Gross July 30, 2019 Additions [ads1], [hws1], [via1], [lgs1]. Explanations changed, were "Not looked for yet."
1.4 Patrick Gross September 13, 2019 Additions [rlt1], [jbs2], Summary.
1.5 Patrick Gross January 5, 2020 Addition [ppe1]. Explanations changed, were "Not looked for yet. Obvious description of a meteor."
1.6 Patrick Gross February 20, 2020 Addition [cpd1].
1.7 Patrick Gross March 1, 2020 Addition [nnm1].
1.8 Patrick Gross March 13, 2020 Addition [lbl1].
1.9 Patrick Gross March 29, 2020 Addition [cdn1].
2.0 Patrick Gross April 19, 2020 Addition [vdn1].
2.1 Patrick Gross April 25, 2020 Addition [jps1].
2.2 Patrick Gross June 13, 2020 Addition [nll1].
2.3 Patrick Gross June 15, 2020 Addition [ner1].
2.4 Patrick Gross June 24, 2020 Addition [nmn1].

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