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La 'Philadelphia Experiment':

TECHNOLOGIES POUR L'INVISIBILITE:

Une technique optique et de radar d'invisibilité déduite de la légende de "l'expérience de Philadelphie" de la deuxième guerre mondiale.

Par Alexander Strang Fraser.

Droits réservés par Alexander Strang Fraser, 1991 Nelson, BC, Canada.

INTRODUCTION:

Ce qui est devenu connu comme "l'expérience de Philadelphie" a été lancé avec une lettre écrite par Carl M. Allen (dit Carlos Miguel Allende) au Dr. Morris K. Jessup. Ceci ainsi que de l'information et des spéculations additionnelles ont mené à la croissance d'une légende intrigante qui inclut l'invisibilité et la téléportation du destroyer escorteur USS Eldridge (DE 173) de l'US Navy en Octobre 1943 sur la côte Est des USA. En outre, ces résultats phénoménaux ont été censément réalisés par le bureau de la recherche navale (ONR) par l'utilisation d'une théorie de champ unifiée (UFT) par Einstein, et de puissants champs magnétiques. En outre, des effets secondaires graves auraient été éprouvés par l'équipage.

La Navy a nié que l'ONR ait jamais effectué la moindre recherche sur l'invisibilité (1.2). Ceci semble être techniquement correct en ce qui concerne "l'expérience de Philadelphie" (PX) - mais qu'en est-il des autres activités possibles du laboratoire de recherches naval (NRL), à D.C? (tableau 1, carte 1 [non reproduite ici])

Ce rapport montre que les divers aspects de PX sont conformes à une technologie qui peut rendre un bateau invisible. Bien que ce ne soit pas la preuve directe d'une réalité derrière la légende, la coïncidence est notable.

CONTEXTE HISTORIQUE DE PX:

(evénements choisis)

1923, 2 Juillet - l'US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) ouvre, D.C. (3)
1941, 7 Décembre - Pearl Harbor; Dunninger soumet l'idée de rendre les navires invisibles àla Navy après cela (4)
1942, 8 Mai - perte du porte avion US Lexington (5)
1942, 7 Juin - perte du porte avion US Yorktown (6)
1942, 15 Septembre - perte du porte avion US Wasp (7)
1942, 26 Octobre - perte du porte avion US Hornet (8)
1942, 2 Décembre - le réacteur nucléaire (Fermi et al) est un succès, University of Chicago (9)
1943, 22 Février - début de la construction de l'Eldridge - Newark, NJ (10)
1943, Mars - Pic du succès des U-boat Nazi (11)
1943, Printemps - Comité Allié formé pour enquêter sur la situation des Nazi en matière de missiles (12)
1943, 25 Juillet - l'Eldridge est mis à l'eau (13)
1943, 27 Août - l'Eldridge est opérationnel - New York (14,15) 1943, Septembre - missions d'escortes de l'Eldridge jusqu'à fin Décembre (16)
1943, Automne - les Britanniques découvrent deux type de missiles Nazi, (V-1 & 2) (17)
1943, 4 Octobre - le SS Andrew Furuseth est au port - Newport News, Virginie (18)
1943, Octore - PX (19,20)
1943, 25 Octobre - le Furuseth part pour Oran, Afrique du Nord (21)
1943, Fin - les problème de la torpille US Mark 14 sont tous réglés (22)
1943, Fin Décembre - Eldridge à l'entraînement près de Block Island, RI (23)
1944, Janvier - Eldridge escorte des convois dans l'Atlantique (24)
1944, 6 Juin - Jour J (25)
1944, 13 Juin - Premières attaques de V-1 contre l'Angleterre (26)
1944, 19 Juin - Les porte avions Japonais Shokaku & Taiho coulés par des sous-marins US (27)
1944, 24 Octobre - Le porte avion US Princeton est perdu (28)
1944, 29 Noembre - Le porte avions Japonais Shinano coulé par un sous-marin US (29)
1944, 19 DéCembre - Le porte avions Japonais Unryu coulé par un sous-marin US (30)
1945, Début - Le NRL est transféré du Bureau of Ships à l'Office of Research and Inventions (ORI) (31)
1945, 16 Juillet - Première explosion de la bombe A - Alamogordo, Nouveau Mexique (32)
1946, L'Office of Naval Research (ONR) succàde à l'ORI (33,34)
1956, 13 Janvier - Première lettre de Carl M. Allen (adresse dans la campagne du New Kensington, Pennsylvanie (35)) reçue par Jessup (36)

RECONSTRUCTION ENCOURAGEANTE DES DÉVELOPPEMENTS DE PX:

Les forces navales ont vécu une transition pendant la 2e Guerre Mondiale dans laquelle le porte-avions a, en 1943, remplacé le cuirassé comme navire prépondérant des flottes. (37) Une façon d'affronter les portes avions japonais était évidemment l'attaque par submersibles. Cependant, le succès des submersibles US a été sévèrement limité pendant la première partie de la guerre par les problèmes de la torpille Mark 14, qui n'ont pas été réglés avant fin 1943 (tableau 1). (22) Pendant cette période d'autres solutions auraient été attrayantes.

La perte d'importance du cuirassé était un exemple de mise en cause d'un système établi par une avancée fondamentale (l'utilisation de l'avion pour augmenter de manière significative le rayon de l'action navale) pour gagner un avantage militaire. Après que l'idée d'un bateau invisible ait été avancée (4), le concept d'un destroyer invisible (un navire rapide, furtif, pour couler les porte avions) pour remplacer la solution des sous-marins devrait avoir été évident.

Tout enthousiasme pour un tel concept n'aurait probablement pas été atténué avant le succès, ou la perspective raisonnable du succès, des sous-marins US en 1944 (tableau 1) avec la torpille Mark 14 entièrement fonctionnelle et la nouvelle Mark 18 électrique et les torpilles acoustiques Mark 27. (38)

LE CHAMP:

La chose centrale dans PX semble avoir été un certain genre de champ (39). On a suggéré que le dégaussing ait été impliqué (40) et que ce type d'équipement ait été employé pour former un champ magnétique puissant (41). C.M. Allen a impliqué qu'une théorie de champ unifiée Einsteinoenne (UFT) était impliquée (42).

Toute circonstance qui produiraient des distortions de l'espace-temps afin de causer la téléportation (et ainsi l'invisibilité apparente) produiraient d'énormes anomalies de la gravité. De telles anomalies sont absentes de PX. indépendamment d'un lien avec une déformation utilisant le magnétisme, les champs magnétiques supposés n'auraient aucune invisibilité comme conséquence. Les champs magnétiques et l'UFT sembleraient donc faire partie de la légende non pertinente pour l'invisibilité.

La nature du champ, cependant, est perceptible dans les descriptions empiriques. C.M. Allen a employé le terme "roussissement" (43) et s'est référé au feu (44) et à l'ondulation optique comme celle vue dans de l'air chauffé (45). Le champ semble donc avoir eu un composant substantiel de chaleur et sera ici doublé d'un "champ" thermique.

OPTICAL INVISIBILITY:

The most obvious connection between heat and altered visibility is the variety of mirage phenomena. Indeed, the idea of applying a mirage to make US Navy ships invisible was submitted by illusionist? Joseph Dunninger early in the Pacific War (Table 1) (4). To make a ship invisible a mirage effect called 'sinking' (46) is applicable.

If one ignores differences in perspective, an idea of 'sinking' can be achieved by visualizing a ship sailing away. As the ship follows the curvature of the earth it appears to sink into the horizon with only the top of the mast visible before it finally disappears.

In mirage "sinking', rather than moving the ship on a curved surface, the relative height of the ship with respect to the interveneing surface can in effect be lowered by curving the path of the light from the ship. If the temperature of the air around the ship decreases (i.e., density & refractive index increases) with height, the light rays are bent upwards (Fig. I, not shown here)(47). As the temperature gradient increases in magnitude the ship will appear to sink into a "vanishing line" (48) near the surface of the sea until, with sufficient magnitude, it disappears entirely (Fig. II, not shown here). At this point the image of the ship can only be seen if one is above the line-of-sight of the observer, who would be in the Image-Free Zone of Figure I.

The inverted image in Figure II is not essential to the invisibility situation but is simply typical of the 'inferior' mirage (49) conditions during which 'sinking' can occur (50).

The technique of artificial mirage-related ship invisibility is paralleled by the probable natural mirage-related disappearances of Bouvet Island (1772, 1774, 1775, 1843, 1845) (51) and Easter Island (1928) (52). 17:33 PM 01.05.2003

RADAR:

For a medium of given refractive index, deviation of electromagnetic waves by refraction decreases with increasing wavelength. This difference in deviation experienced by different wavelengths is called dispersion and the magnitude of it decreases with decreasing refractive index (53). Since the refractive index of air (approx. 1.0003) (54) is almost equal to that of vacuum (1), dispersion in air is slight (55). Radar beams, being of longer wavelength than light, are bent or curved (56) slightly less than light but are still affected by the same atmospheric circumstances. An example of similar activity is the ducting along an inversion layer of both A) light (57) (e.g., Novaya Zemlya effect (58)) and B) radar (59,60) (e.g., extended range in the Mediterranean during WWII (61)).

FIELD GENERATOR:

To make mirage-related light and radar invisibility effective in all azimuths, the thermal field would have to extend laterally from, and encircle, the ship. This is consistent with C.M. Allen's approximately 200 yard diameter "oblate spheroidal" description.(62)

To generate the thermal field, energy must be distributed from the ship in a form which air can absorb. This can be done by the use of high frequency sound-- which was witnessed during a dock-side test.(63) Since making a ship an acoustical beacon would depreciate the invisibility advantage, the use of inaudible ultrasonics would be necessary. There are a considerable number of details in the PX legend that are consistent with the use of ultrasonics (Table II).

Since the absorption of sound in air escalates with frequency (64) and since considerable lateral dimensions seem necessary, there are limits as to how high the frequency can be raised.

It should be noted that the effects of high power ultrasonics on any PX crew would have been a disincentive to further project development. Besides this, various operational problems would exist that might be expensive to fix or unsolvable (Table III).

TABLE II, PX ULTRASONIC INDICATIONS:

Selected PX Details and their Ultrasonic Explanation (?) direct & (indirect)

"scorch"(43)
A) (hot air)
B) body heating by ultrasonic diathermy(72)
C) heating of absorptive clothing(73,74)
D) "burning sensation" due to vibration damping between fingers(75)

fires(44)
excessive heating of absorptive materials(73,74)

crew members who acted drunk(65)
A) equilibrium loss(76)
B) (giddiness due to heat exhaustion)(77)

unconsciousness(66)
(fainting due to heat exhaustion)(78)

sense of being "stuck"(67) or frozen(68)
paralysis due ro effect on nerves(79)

insanity(69)
A) central nervous system lesions(80)
B) (brain damage due to heat stroke)(81)

green(70) fog(71)
fog: from water(82) due to activity of harmonics?(83)
green: water sonoluminescence?(84)

TABLE III, MIRAGE-RELATED SHIP INVISBILITY PROBLEMS:

Problems and Potential Solutions

nerve effects
separation of crew from ultrasonic-thermal field by altering deck duties and/or using special enclosures/suits

heat exhaustion
same as above (though of course ultrasonics and heat require different types of shielding)

fire hazard
removal/replacement of combustibles & absorbers on outside of ship

possible ultrasonic detonation of explosives(85)
separation from field (like the crew)

high rate of energy consumption
limited usage

still-detectable ship's propulsion sound
EM [electromagnetic] propulsion(86)

distal ultrasonic/thermal signatures?
?

crew's inability to 'see out' to navigate, etc.
acquisition of external info by periscope extending above main part of thermal field

possible anomalous appearance of features behind the thermal field
approach observer from direction of 'unstructured' backgrounds like the open sea

ship's wake extending beyond invisibility zone
use in situations without airborne observers or simply stop moving when aircraft approach

lack of vertical invisibility-- this may be the most serious limitation
use in airborne situations wothout airborne observers, or camouflage the ship (the fog may help) & jam or absorb radar

thermal field structure wind susceptibility
compensation by steering of ultrasonic generators, and avoidance of use in gusty situations

GENERATORS:

Sirens are one of the best generators of powerful ultrasonics in air(87). (J. Robison invented the siren in the late 1700's(88).) An appropriate siren consists of a toothed rotor within a ported housing, perhaps with an attached horn. The teeth of the rotor interrupt a flow of air from a compressor to form individual sound waves (Fig. III, not shown). (Note: the cross section shows only one of the siren's air feed lines.)

With a given number of rotor teeth the output frequency is controlled by setting the speed of the electric motor driving the rotor. Acoustical power output is related to air feed pressure and flow rate. This type of siren was described in a journal about four years after PX(89).

The term "flow" related by C.M. Allen(90) is a description which matches the "sonic wind" accompanying a siren's sound wave.(91)

TELEPORTATION:

PX can be broken down into various stages of development. Stage 1 would have involved dock-side tethered(92) test (s).

Stage 2 would have involved a sea test (93) observed from the Furuseth(94) (the Furuseth put to sea Oct. 25 (Table I) just prior to a possible apparent teleportation incident Oct. 28 (95)).

Stage 3? apparently involved the formation of a thermal field around a destroyer by the use of ultrasonic generators on two companion ships.(96) The 'observations' that have led to speculations of teleportation(97) are explainable within the setting of stage 2.

From the point of view of a participant the ship rapidly translated from Philadelphia to Norfolk (Map I, not shown), and then back again.(98) Also, there were witnesses to the brief appearance of a ship in the Norfolk area.(99) While the trip is apparently substantiated, the short duration of it is not. If the participant went unconscious (Table II) both times the thermal field was strongly developed, and the ship was under way during those times, the observed elapsed time of the trip would obviously be inaccurate.

Once could speculate that the Eldridge left Philadelphia in the morning, reached Norfolk while it was still light, and returned to Philadelphia by the next morning at almost the same time of day it left. If the participant lost track of the date during a subsequent recovery period(100) and thus did not realize he had lost a whole day, the elapsed mission time could have seemed brief.

It is likely then that the PX 'teleportation' is a misinterpretation and not an actual warp situation.

ALLEN:

Carl M. Allen's first letter to Jessup (Table I) contains terms in quotes, indicating second hand information on the PX experience. This suggests he was not on board the Eldridge during PX operations. However, since he was apparently among the crew of the Furuseth(101) which he indicated was an observer ship(102), he may have had the opportunity to witness at least some part of Stage 2.

C.M. Allen does not seem to have had access to technical details on PX since he does not relate anything useful in this regard. He therefore cannot be confused with C.H. Allen (Dept. of Physics, Pennsylvania State College, State College, PA (Map I)), coauthor of the 1947 article on sirens.(103) The similarity of their names is interesting however.

APPENDIX: ARTIFICIAL GRAVITY:

For those interested in gravity alteration or warp technology possibilities, it would likely be of no small disappointment that such a tantalizing prospect as PX 'teleportation' would literally turn out to be a lot of hot air. A case for artificial gravity can be made however.

A possible fundamental proportionality between electric charge and gravitation at atomic scales is evident in Dirac's Large Numbers Hypothesis equations.(104, 105)

Electric field action between charges can be explained by the exchange of virtual photon field particles.(106) Virtual(?) (107) photons also compose the quantum mechanically generated Zero-Point electromagnetic radiation that pervades space(108, 109). Alteration of the Z-P EM distribution can produce actual effects (Lamb shift, Casimir effect) and it has been suggested that such an alteration by matter might explain gravity.(110) Perhaps and electric field's virtual photons interact with the Z-P's virtual(?) photon situation to produce a gravity effect.

It has been found that the period of a torque pendulum can be increased by charging it. (111) This result can be explained by an increase in the pendulum disk's moment of inertia by the addition of artificial gravitation-related virtual inertial mass with a greater radius of gyration than that of the disk. (The charge producing this gravitation should have had a greater density on the smaller radius of curvature surfaces at the periphery of the disk.)

It was also found that the pendulum's period was generally greater with positive charge, compared to negative. (112) This together with the corresponding artificial gravitational fields explains the thrust in the direction of the positive pole in high voltage DC plate capacitors (Biefield-Brown effect).(113) These empirical situations suggest the possible proportionality between charge and gravitation is applicable macroscopically.

On an astronomical scale this electric gravity may resolve the spiral galaxy rotational velocities problem that has led to the supposed requirement for huge quantities of dark matter. (114)

On a laboratory scale an effective way to produce very high voltages/charge densities may be by way of momentary electric discharges (sparks). Significant charge separations may be achieved by the short-lived formation of an electron filament surrounded by positive ions. (115)

Another phenomenon due to the action of sparks apparently involves the formation of electron clusters. (116) Considering the massive electrical activity in lightning, and electric gravity, it follows that some types of ball lightning may have a localized gravitational anomaly component. The use of momentary discharges to form a gravitational field above an object's center of mass, to reduce its weight, may have been demonstrated with Farrow's "condensing dynamo".(117)


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Cette page a été mise à jour le 5 Février 2001