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The 1954 French flap:

The index page for the 1954 French flap section of this site is here.

October 16, 1954, Bélesta, Ariège:

Reference number for this case: 16-oct-54-Belesta. Thank you for including this reference number in any correspondence with me regarding this case.

Reports:

[Ref. hw1:] HAROLD T. WILKINS:

The author reports that in October 1954, at Belesta in the French Pyrenees, a marketman said he saw a brilliant ball shoot through the sky, leaving grey smoke behind.

[Ref. am1:] AIME MICHEL:

Aimé Michel reports on an observation which had for witnesses a whole area made up of the departments of the Allier and of the Aude. He brings back the observation through the report of Doctor Millet, who was the president of the flying-club of Lavelanet, in Ariège.

The observation began on October 16, 1954 at about 09:30 P.M., when some inhabitants of Belesta were the first to see a curious luminosity which seemed to come from a very shining object hidden by the top of the rocks which form the crest of the mountain which borders the south-west horizon.

Quickly enough, many people alerted in the streets and the places of Belesta which had more than one thousand of inhabitants were looking at the phenomenon.

The object then raised in the sky and let everyone see his well defined ellipse shape, radiant of an intense glare. The object did not remain high a long time and went down again behind the crest where it could not be seen any more, then, it went up again, then descended again and did this up and down move again several times.

Aimé Michel takes on the written account by Doctor Millet for the continuation of the observation's description:

"It was like that during eight to ten minutes, up to 21:40. At this time, it is not a disc which reappeared, but two, separated by a very obvious space. They presented neither the same glare nor same colouring, one was shining white, the other pale green. This phase lasted one minute or two approximately. And suddenly one could see not two but three objects. They changed frequently and suddenly in their colouring. With the third object, a new color had appeared, an extremely luminous dark red similar to the red of a stained glass lit by the sun."

"At 09:45 P.M., the phenomenon disappeared definitively."

Aimé Michel notes that the Gendarmerie was alerted from the very start of the observation and that the gendarmes thus counted among the large number of witnesses.

Doctor Millet, the chief of the gendarmerie squad and a third witness had taken a car and drove beyond the forest by the secondary road 16 to the plate of Sault at 900 meters of altitude. At 10:05 P.M., they arrived on the road which dominates the large plain of Béague in the South-west of Belesta, and the three people observed the last phase of the phenomenon, that is to say a vast pale green object which slipped by at high speed in the direction of the West towards Belvis, in the Aude. It quickly decreased in apparent size and in luminosity and ceased being perceptible at an angular height of 25 to 30 degrees above the horizon.

When these three witnesses returned in Belesta, they learned that other witnesses had phoned from various places to also report the presence of the objects seen at the beginning above the rocks, giving concordant accounts for the hour and the localisation.

[Ref. jv5:] JACQUES VALLEE:

364 -001.93221 51.90300 16 10 1954 21 30 1 (BELESTA-ARIEGE) F 0033 G

[Ref. gl1:] CHARLES GARREAU AND RAYMOND LAVIER:

The authors indicate that in Belesta, in the Ariège, on October 16, 1954, little after 21:30, a hundred residents saw appearing above the "Rocher-de-Millet", an extremely brilliant luminous ball which rose above the mountain, remained motionless a for while, descended to disappear behind the rocks, and started again its manoeuver.

The authors say that the phenomenon however appeared in different spots and that it "was very easy to foresee its reappearance", for a gleam took shape clearly through the trees of the top of cliff. "This gleam made place to the luminous disc again; whose glare always remained dazzling."

This went on during eight to ten minutes approximately, on to 21:40, then a second disc appeared at the sides of the first, but clearly a distance away. Both seldom presented the same glare or same colouring; one was shining white, the other took a pale green color, intensely luminous.

This phase lasted hardly two minutes, then a third disc emerged and with the two others, started to perform a dazing round in the sky. The three discs changed frequently and suddenly in colouring. A new color had appeared, an orange red, relatively dark, but very luminous, whose hue, said the witnesses, was comparable to certain reds that one sees in a rosette or stained glass of a cathedral when they are crossed by a ray of light.

At 21:45, the phenomenon ceased suddenly. From the very start, the gendarmerie squad had been alerted and the gendarmes were among the main witnesses. When all appeared finished, Doctor Millet, president of the Flying club, wanting of to know more, invited the chief of the squad and another witness to accompany him by car to the plate of the country of Sault, at 900 meters of altitude, beyond the forest.

A quarter of an hour later, at 22:05, the vehicle arrived on the road dominating the large meadow of the road of Bunague (in the Aude) and the motorists saw appearing at the zenith above the hamlet of Bunague a very sharp pale green gleam which descended at a very high speed in direction of Belvis. It disappeared suddenly before reaching Belvis at approximately 250 to 300 meters above the horizon.

Back in Belesta, Doctor Millet and his companions learned that the gleam had been seen at the same hour and appeared to move towards this same Millet rock, so brilliantly illuminated twenty minutes before.

[Ref. bb1:] GERARD BARTHEL AND JACQUES BRUCKER:

The two authors quote the following account, without giving a date nor reference for their source:

"At approximately 08:30 p.m., the inhabitants of Belesta, in Ariège, saw an object which went up in the sky and appeared in the shape of an ellipse with distinct edges radiating with an intense glare. It did not remain there a long time, went down again, became again invisible, went up and down again, several times in continuation. These strange operations lasted 8 to 10 minutes. Now it is not a disc which reappears, but two. Separated by a rather large space. One white, the other green. This phase lasts 1 minute approximately. Suddenly, one could see not two, but three objects. They frequently changed colouring. The third was red dark extremely luminous, similar to the red of a stained glass lit by the sun. After a quarter of hour the many witnesses among whose were gendarmes and Doctor Millet, noted the total disappearance of the phenomenon."

They say that the "trick" for this observation comes from an inhabitant of Belesta which knew the inventor well: you take an old bicycle wheel, you carefully attach four fireworks rockets on the rays, you go to a place above the village, ignite the rockets with care and throw all of it above the village.

They list the case further in the book, saying "cas closed as hoax by investigation."

[Ref. fr1:] MICHEL FIGUET AND JEAN-LOUIS RUCHON:

The two authors indicate that on October 16, 1954, at about 09:30 p.m., the inhabitants of Belesta in the department of Ariège were the first to see, above the rocks which limit the horizon towards the south-west, a curious luminosity which seemed to come from a very shiny object hidden by the edge of the mountain. There were soon many witnesses in the streets.

Almost at once, the object rose in the sky and appeared in the shape of an ellipse radiating of an intense gleam. It did not remain there for a long time, it went down again, became again invisible then went up, went down again, appearing and disappearing several times in a row. It was very easy to follow its movements. It was so during eight to ten minutes, up to 21:40.

At this time, it was not a disc which reappeared, but two, separated by a very noticeable space. They presented neither the same glare nor the same colors, one being shining white, the other pale green. This phase lasted approximately a minute.

And suddenly, one did not see anymore two, but three objects instead. They frequently and suddenly changed their colors. With this third object a new color appeared: an extremely luminous dark red similar to the red of a stained glass lit by the sun. At 09:45 p.m., the phenomenon suddenly and definitively disappeared, but the main witnesses who could follow the end of the events, a doctor, the chief of the gendarmerie squad and a third person gathered and went by car beyond the forest by the secondary road D16 to the plate of Sault, at 900 meters of altitude.

At 10:05 p.m., their car arrived on the road dominating the large meadow of Bénague, in the south-west of Belesta. From there, the witnesses managed to observe the last phase of the phenomenon: a large pale green object slipped by at high speed in the direction to Belvis, in the Aude, towards the west. Its size and glare quickly decreased and it ceased being perceptible at a site of 25° by 30°.

The authors indicate that their source is Aimé Michel in "A propos des S.V." pages 225-226.

[Ref. mf1:] MICHEL FIGUET:

In an extract of his Francat catalogue, Michel Figuet recorded that tthe case in Belesta was a hoax according to Barthel and Brucker page 158 and 205.

[Ref. js1:] JEAN SIDER:

Jean Sider indicates that on October 16, 1954, in Bélesta in the Ariège, between 21:30 and 21:40, and not 20:30 as affirmed by Barthel and Brucker on page 157, several residents including gendarmes and Dr. Millet observed an elliptic shape shining of an intense glare and with quite precise contour in the sky. This disappeared after several operations of descents and lift which lasted 10 minutes. Then two discs, then three were seen, and the phenomena vanished at the end of a quarter of an hour.

Jean Sider affirms then that one must remain skeptical about the explanation by Barthel and Brucker who talked about a bicycle wheel provided with four fireworks launched above the village starting from a higher place.

Jean Sider affirms that Barthel and Brucker certainly invented it when they said that a "still anonymous of course" resident of Bélesta knew the inventor of the contraption and told them about it.

Jean Sider indicates that he consulted the local press, i.e. the newspaper "La Dépêche du Midi" for October 19, 1954 on page 10, and found "embarrassing facts" silenced by Bartel and Brucker:

At 22:05, Dr. Millet, the chief of the local gendarmerie and another person arrived by car beyond the forest on the plate of Sault at 900 meters of altitude, and from this higher point relative to Bélesta they managed to observe the last phase of the phenomenon, that is, a vast pale green object slipping by towards the south.

Jean Sider is ironical and comments on that "a rusted bicycle rim" could not have stayed in the air from 21:30 to 22:05, it would "question all our established laws as regards aerodynamics", and that it could not have deceived a doctor "amateur aviator, moreover" and a chief of gendarmerie squad. He finishes by saying that Barthel and Brucker take witnesses for "clowns troupiers or dipsomaniacs".

[Ref. go1:] GODELIEVE VAN OVERMEIRE:

The Belgian ufologist indicates that in 1954, on October 16, in France in Belesta, from 21:30 to 21:45, then at 22:05, asightings occurred: "Witnesses: Doctor Millet, the commander of gendarmerie of Belesta, residents. Observation of a luminous elliptic thing which split initially in two, then in three parts. This disappears definitively towards 21:45. At 22:05, from another place, the witnesses see a vast pale green object, slipping by at high speed towards the west."

The source is indicated as "FIGUET/ J.L. RUCHON: 'Ovni, premier dossier complet...' - Alain Lefeuvre pub. 1979, p. 173, 174".

[Ref. lc1:] LUC CHASTAN:

Luc Chastan indicates that in the Ariège in Bélesta on October 16, 1954 "towards 21:30 hours, the residents of Belesta see the first, above the rocks which limit the horizon towards the south-west, a curious luminosity which seems to come from a very shining object hidden by the edge of the mountain. There are soon many witnesses in the streets."

"Almost at once, the object goes up in the sky and appears in the shape of an ellipse radiating an intense gleam. It does not remain there a long time, goes down again, becomes again invisible then goes up, goes down again, appearing and disappearing several times in continuation. It is very easy to follow its movements. It is like that during eight to ten minutes, till 21:40."

"At this time, it is not a disc thath reappears, but two, separated by quite a space. They present neither the same glare nor the same colouring, one shining white, the other pale green. This phase lasts one minute approximately."

"And suddenly, one can see not two, but three objects. It change [sic] frequently and suddenly in colouring. With this third object a new color appeared: an extremely luminous dark red similar to the red of a stained glass lit by the sun. At 21:45, the phenomenon disappears suddenly and definitively, but the main witnesses who can follow the end of the events, a doctor, the chief of the squad and a third person go up by car beyond the forest by the D16 [road] to the plate of Sault, at 900 meters of altitude. A 22:05, the vehicle arrives on the road dominating the large meadow of Bénague, in the south-west of Belesta. From there, the witnesses can observe the last phase of the phenomenon: a vast pale green object slips by at high speed in direction of Belvis, in the Aude, towards the west. It decreases quickly in size and glare and cease to be perceptible to a site of 25° to 30°."

Luc Chastan indicates that the source is "Ovni, Premier dossier complet... by Figuet M./ Ruchon J.L. ** Alain Lefeuvre pub. 1979".

[Ref. ud1:] "UFODNA" WEBSITE:

The website indicates that on October 16, 1954, at 21:30 in Belesta, France, "Objects were sighted that had an appearance and performance beyond the capability of known earthly aircraft. Three objects were observed by a male witness at a mountain for over 35 minutes (Millet)."

The sources are listed as Michel, Aime, Flying Saucers and the Straight-Line Mystery, S. G. Phillips, New York, 1958; Vallee, Jacques, Computerized Catalog (N = 3073); Vallee, Jacques, Challenge to Science: The UFO Enigma, Henry Regnery, Chicago, 1966; Vallee, Jacques, Preliminary Catalog (N = 500), (in JVallee01); Hatch, Larry, *U* computer database, Author, Redwood City, 2002.

[Ref. be1:] "OVNI ET VIE EXTRATERRESTRE" BLOG:

This blog copied the [lc1] source, uncredited.

[Ref. oc1:] "LES OVNIS COMMENT NE PAS Y CROIRE?" WEBSITE:

This website copied the [lc1] source, uncredited.

[Ref. me1:] "LES MYSTERES DE L'ETRANGE" BLOG:

This blog copied the [lc1] source, uncredited.

[Ref. dm1:] "LA DEPECHE DU MIDI" NEWSPAPER:

Ufo in Bélesta in 1954: it was a prank!

In 1954, buddies make lights dance at the top of the Millet hill and enter the chronicles for 50 years.

On the internet type "ovni-Bélesta". You will see what comes up. You will not be disappointed! On October 16, 1954, a Saturday, in the night sky of Bélesta one attended the sudden appearance "of luminous balls evolving during half an hour in a magical round". It was the headline of La Dépêche du Midi" which, a few days later, devoted a long article to the phenomenon, written by Doctor Millet, then president of the flying-club of Lavelanet. It was in the full middle of a period of appearances of UFO in the sky of France, tens of testimonys had been duly listed, by the authorities.

In Bélesta tens of people managed to testify about the ballet of the luminous balls above the "Millet Rock", where there is a cross. The gendarmes also checked it, called by a population intrigued by the phenomenon. Since then this "case" is one of the classics of Ufology, which one finds referred everywhere, success authors rest on it to develop their theses about the unknown worlds which come to visit us. And yet this splendid appearance should be striped off: because it was only a hoax!

"PRESCRIPTION"

"I thought that after 55 years, there was prescription, that the time had come to tell the truth loud and clear". Rene Lagarde is among the witnesses. In his seventies, reitired from the national police force, he is not a dreamer. "This affair, it is a game by young people. With all my buddies of Bélesta, we were a half-dozen, we were really bored that Saturday evening there. In the newspapers, on the radio, one only spoke about UFO. Then we said to ourselves: they want some, we'll give it to them!".

Fifty-five years later, there they are the principal protagonists of this hoax, all in their seventies, still amused at the memory of these strange luminous appearances: Jean and André Sibra, Rene Lagarde, Gerard Pibouleau, Gerard Coléra. It is as if it were yesterday. In front of them, the solid mass of the Millet, very stiff, that at the time they climbed on all four with a strange apparatus in the hands. A bicycle fork, a handlebar, a wheel and attached a little everywhere, powerful flashlights. It is the father of the one of them who had manufactured this weird machine. He also was in the confidence. On the lamps, masks of colors made with papers of candy envelope. Red, yellow, green...

They still laugh about it

"With this special bicycle, we went up and down around the cross, there were no trees at that time, in the night people saw poorly and they had the impression that these lights went up and down in the sky." Rene continues. His hilarious buddies, take again the song. "From up there - André remembers - one saw a car coming up, it was the gendarmes: we fled!" Bad luck for the young people who wanted to only have fun, the sky added its own trick, like if it wanted to make their hoax more credible. "Whereas we left, a huge shooting star crossed the sky!", René tells. That was the gleam which seemed to reach Belvis in the testimony!

Downhill, in the streets of Belesta where a contest of belote proceeded, everyone was outside, with the gendarmes. Most of the population could thus testify to what they saw. Gerard Pibouleau remembers: "When we came down again, one tried to say that it was us. I even received a slap on behalf of somebody who called me a liar. The affair became extensive. One did not dare to speak about it again. And since, we lives with this secret!"

IN THE BOOKS

The case since had become a classic of Ufology. It is because Rene Lagarde found it reported in a book, devoted to the Ariège, and also because he looked up on the internet, that he decided to speak. He called his buddies. One of them was deceased. Another ill, could not come to go to this sympathetic "fiftieth anniversary". Under a sprintime sun, they stood there, with their mischievous smile, contemplating the solid mass of the Millet, and the eyes still lost in their beautiful youngster's prank!

The "official" observation in "La Dépêche" in 1954

According to gendarmerie reports, collected testimonys, here is the story such as it is included in all the magazine or websites [untrue!] about UFOs:

"Towards 21:30 the inhabitants of Belesta see the first, above the rocks which limit the horizon towards the south-west, a curious luminosity which seems to come from a very shining object hidden by the edge of the mountain. There are soon many witnesses in the streets. Almost at once the object goes up in the sky and appears in the form of an ellipse radiating an intense gleam. It does not remain there a long time, goes down again, becomes visible again, then goes up, goes down again, appearing and disappearing several times in continuation. It is very easy to follow its movements. It goes on like this during eight to ten minutes, till 21:40. At this time, it is not a disc which reappears, but two, separated by quite a space. They present neither the same glare, nor the same colouring, one shining white, the other pale green. This phase lasts one minute approximately.

AN OBJECT DASHES TOWARDS BELVIS

Suddenly one can see not just two, but three objects. They changed colors frequently and suddenly. With this third object a new color appeared: an extremely luminous dark red similar to the red of a stained glass lit by the sun. At 21:45, the phenomenon disappears suddenly and definitively. But the main witnesses who can follow the end of the events, a doctor, the chief of the brigade, and a third person go up by car beyond the forest by the D16 [road], to the plate of Sault. At 22:05 in the western south of Belesta they can observe the last phase of the phenomenon: a vast pale green object slips by at a very high speed in the direction of Belvis, towards the west (...)

The Bélesta case: iften cited in the books and doubted

The observation of Bélesta is quoted in many sources (see below) but it must be acknowledged that certain authors had doubts about the reality of the phenomenon. Like Gerard Barthel and Jacques Brucker who are not far from discovering the trickery when they write that "the receipt for this observation is from an inhabitant of Bélesta which knew the inventor well: you need to take an old bicycle wheel". And they detail the instructions, a little different from what it actually was but rather close however. Michel Figuet in his extract of the Francat catalogue also notes that it is a mystification.

[Note: the newspaperman obviously read my file!]

A much repetead prank

It should be said that in Belesta some who were not the authors of the hoax had then accepted responsibility for the prank... It is thus that they suspected a prank. Unless they wanted to get some small glory by taking their share of the mystery.

However, the "Belesta case" is largely evoked in the following sources:

- "Flying saucers uncensored" de Harold T.Wilkins (1 954) page 57 ;

- "Mystérieux objets célestes" d'Aimé Michel Séghers Éditeur (1 958) pages 246-249,

Let's note that on the web the case is also mentionned: Ovni dans la région Midi-Pyrénées. les-ovini.com [sic, www.les-ovnis.com] and very numerous blogs [?] tell about the facts.

[Ref. tf1:] "TF1" TV CHANNEL:

[TF1 website headline:]

Hoax: the UFO's, it was them. They confess 54 years later

In 1954, teenagers, starting from a bicycle wheel and lamps, succeeded in making believe that an UFO had passed in the sky of the Ariège. An event which is always referred to by certain websites. More than 50 years later, the authors of the hoax decided to reveal the truth. By TF1

[Transcription of the TF1 TV news report:]

Jean-Pierre Pernod (TV news host, in Paris): "After the History with a big "H", the small history with a very small "h", of a hoax which held more than one half-century. [Half-truth]"

"In 1954 a group of teenagers had told they saw UFOs [False, they did not tell to have seen it, they created it] in the sky of Ariège, they had told all a, all a story, there had been articles in the newspapers, UFO experts believed it [half-truth], well, 55 years after, the teen...agers who had told thestory acknowledged that it was a hoax. In Bélesta in the Ariège, Perinne Mislanghes and Paul-Etienne Zahn".

On site, Perinne Mislanghes: "Here it is, the famous flying saucer of Bélesta: a simple bicycle wheel and flashlights fixed on the rays."

"Le 16 octobre 1954, en manque d'animation, ces jeunes compères ont eu l'idée de ce stratagème."

Pranster: "And we showed it like that and we passed it on to each other and we hid it like this that's it..."

Perinne Mislanghes: "On the heights of the Millet rock, and overhanging the village, the flashlights covered with coloured candy paper changed into luminous balls. The bicycle [the bicycle wheel] became a UFO. In the valley, everyone was gathered for belote contest, the rumour spread."

Pranster: "When we came here [back to the village], there were even girls in pyjamas, see, so we saw a gathering, on site, we immediately understood that the gendarmes had been alerted..."

Perinne Mislanghes: "And to reinforce the credibility of the story, a shooting star crossed the sky at the same time. In the Fifties [in autumn 1954], of course, the newspapers often told about flying saucers".

Pranster: "At the time there were so many UFOs which flying all over France so we came by, well we'll make one, that's all."

Perinne Mislanghes: "The hoax went so well that the UFO then made the headline of the local newspaper, and in the streets of the village, one still talks about it."

Old lady from the street: "Uh, it's the youngsters who fooled around that day... and well my [?]... UFOs."

A man from the street: "Old folks told us about all that..."

Perinne Mislanghes: "55 years later, it is because the UFO is always quoted in certain books, that our [now] oldtimers pranksters decided to acknowledge the mystery [sic] of the flying saucer of Bélesta."


The bicycle wheen on its rod.

The bicycle wheel equipped with flashlights.

The pranksters.

The Millet Rock (circled) above the village of Bélesta.

[Ref. jb1:] JEROME BEAU:

Saturday, October 16, 1954

At about 21:30
A Bélesta (Midi Pyrénées), observation d'un ballet de lumières.

A link directs to [jb2].

[Ref. jb2:] JEROME BEAU:

The lights of Belesta

Saturday, October 16, 1954, in Bélesta (Midi Pyrénées Midday), towards 21:30 the inhabitants of the city see above the rocks which limit the horizon in the south-west, a curious luminosity which seems to come from a very shining object hidden by the edge of the mountain. There are soon many witnesses in the streets. Almost at once the object goes up in the sky and appears in the form of an ellipse radiating an intense gleam. It does not remain there a long time, goes down again, becomes again visible, then goes up, goes down again, appearing and disappearing several times in continuation. It is very easy to follow its movements. It is like that during 8 to 10 mn, up to 21:40. At this time, it is not 1 disc which reappears, but 2, separated by a quite a space. They present neither the same glare, nor the same colouring, one shining white, the other pale green. This phase lasts 1 approximately mn.

Suddenly one can see not 2, but 3 objects. They frequently and suddenly change colours. With this 3rd object a new color appeared: an extremely luminous dark red similar to the red of a stained glass lit by the sun. At 21:45, the phenomenon disappears suddenly and definitively. But the principal main who can follow the end of the events (Doctor Millet (1), the chief of the brigade, and one 3rd person) go up by car beyond the forest by the D 16, to the plate of Sault. At 22:05 in the south-west of Belesta they can observe the last phase of the phenomenon: a vast pale green object slips by at very high speed in direction of Belvis, towards the west.

Millet's story, is told in the Press (1).

Revelations

In 2009, the hoax is admitted (2).

(1) Then président of the Lavelanet flying club.
(2) Millet: "Des boules lumineuses évoluant durant une demi-heure en une ronde magique", La Dépêche du Midi, October 19, 1954
(3) "Ovni à Bélesta en 1954 : c'était une blague !", La Dépêche du Midi, May 22, 2009

[Ref. lc2:] LUC CHASTAN:

Approximately in 2009-2010, Luc Chastan added before the text of his case file [lc1] the comment:

"This case is to be discarded because : Masquerade of a third party person".

[Ref. ma1:] "MAGONIA.COM*:

The Spanish "Magonia.com" website made a PDF of my page on this case as it was on June 30, 2010 in and published it on the web at http://magonia.com/files/ovni-belesta-1954.pdf

[Ref. ub1:] "UFO-DATENBANK":

This database recorded this case five times:

Case Nr. New case Nr. Investigator Date of observation Zip Place of observation Country of observation Hour of observation Classification Comments Identification
19540000 00.00.1954 Balesta France
19541016 16.10.1954 Belesta France 21.30 CE I
19541016 16.10.1954 Belesta France 21.30
19541016 16.10.1954 Belesta France 21.30 CE II
19541016 16.10.1954 Benague France NL

Explanations:

Prank, admitted in 2009, plus meteor later.

Keywords:

(These keywords are only to help queries and are not implying anything.)

Belesta, Ariège, Millet, Ariège, Aude, multiple, red, green, white, luminous, shining, ellipse, brilliant, disc, disk, manoeuvre, gendarmes, gendarmerie, duration

Sources:

[---] indicates sources which I have not yet checked.

Document history:

Version: Created/Changed by: Date: Change Description:
0.1 Patrick Gross 20 juin 2004 First published.
1.0 Patrick Gross May 22, 2009 Conversion from HTML to XHTML Strict. First formal version. Additions [gl1], [js1], [lc1], [ud1], [dm1].
1.1 Patrick Gross May 25, 2009 Addition [tf1].
1.2 Patrick Gross December 28, 2009 Additions [jb1], [jb2].
1.3 Patrick Gross April 10, 2010 Addition [lc2].
1.4 Patrick Gross June 30, 2010 Addition [jv5].
1.5 Patrick Gross February 2, 2017 Addition [ub1].

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